WORK IN PROCESS UNDER CONSTRUCTION

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The following dates and events are a collage of data from various researchers, journalists, etc. compiled in reverse chronological order by speechless as a personal research tool. At the last edit in June 2012 there may still be incomplete referencing. This is unintentional. Like all my posts it may at any time by updated and modified.

2012-08-20 “The Calgary Homeless Foundation’s last count was conducted Jan. 18, when it was –32 Celsius and at least 3,190 people were homeless — an 11.4 per cent decrease from the May 2008 count.” (Ferguson, Eva. 2012-08-20. “Homeless count in Calgary finds fuller shelters: Growing economy lures more job seekers to Calgary.Calgary Herald.)

2011-06-09 One of the major reasons Canadian cities, including Calgary, are unable to implement sustainable solutions to affordable housing is the lack of money and power at the municipal level. In an article published in The Economist entitled “Canada’s cities Poor relations: Mayors need more money and more powers” there is a list of urban crises including growing ghettos of crime, poverty and drug addiction; soaring house prices, increasing homelessness, the middle class fleeing to the suburbs, deteriorating civic buildings, roads, bridges, sewage systems. Provincial governments have neglected their responsibility for such matters as social housing, welfare, mental illness, drug addiction and policing. “Canada’s big cities need at least C$238 billion to repair and expand infrastructure, according to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. Municipalities get only eight cents out of every tax dollar. Their revenues come mainly from property taxes. Under constitutional arrangements that date back to the time when Canada was largely rural, mayors have fewer powers than their counterparts in some other developed countries.”

2011-06-06 In the statement released by Berry Vrbanovic, President of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) on the 2011-06 Federal Budget Commitment to Develop a New Long-Term Infrastructure Plan for Cities and Communities, Vrbanovic applauded the federal Government for a budgetary commitment to a shift in the municipal-provincial-federal and private sector partnerships that will lead to “a reversal in the decline in our aging infrastructure, and also to keep police on the streets, fix cracks in our housing system, and protect core services.”

2011-06-04 In a recent poll conducted by the Canadian Union of Public Employees 89% of those surveyed supported increased federal and provincial funding for municipal governments.

2011 The City of Calgary is currently involved in the following affordable housing developments: Manchester North Comprehensive Development, Crestwood (Millican-Ogden community), Vista Grande (Vista Heights community), The Bridges: Affordable Housing (Bridgeland-Riverside community), Inglewood Residence Housing Development (Inglewood Community). These initiatives will create approximately 255 new homes for families, singles, couples and individuals with disabilities. It is curious that on closer inspection many of these are already completed. What are the current (2011-06) affordable housing developments?

2011-05-04 Alberta put out a $100-million request for proposals through the provincial 2011-12 Housing Capital Initiatives grant program. A minimum of 660 housing units could be developed, depending on the projects funded. In addition to this year’s funding, more than $1 billion has been invested in more than 10,000 housing units in Alberta since 2007. Increasing the supply of housing for lower-income Albertans is a key part of preventing and ending homelessness, under Alberta’s 10-year plan to end homelessness (more). The provincial government has committed $2.2 million to a 29-unit low income housing project to be run by the Meadowcroft Housing Society in a northwest neighbourhood. The Brentwood Apartments, located at 13535 115th Ave, an ideal location for low-income families (near a major shopping centre, close to the big west Edmonton bus terminal, across the street from Coronation Park). The provincial money covered about 45 % of construction costs for the project. The building contains two bachelor, and 27 one-bedroom units. The suites were supported through a previous housing capital initiative and include barrier-free units. The built-in green features, such as solar power, high-efficiency windows, and geothermal heating, will help lower utility costs.

2011-04-29 the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) calls for all parties in the House of Commons to turn campaign promises to cities and communities into action. “Forty per cent of federal investments in municipalities will expire in the next 36 months (FCM 2011-04-06),” including investments in front-line policing, infrastructure, public transit and affordable housing.

2011 Alberta > Provincial-Territorial Program Delivery> Under Canada’s Economic Plan > Alberta. “More than $1.3 billion over two years will be delivered by and cost-shared with provinces and territories on a 50/50 basis. As a result of this joint investment, more than 9,200 construction and renovation projects are underway or have been completed across the country including 467 projects for low-income seniors and persons with disabilities, and the renovation and retrofit of existing social housing projects in Alberta. An additional $200 million is being invested to address housing needs in the North, resulting in 213 projects underway or completed. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) & Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) Projects: Renovation and Retrofit of Existing Social Housing: $150 million will be delivered directly by CMHC to renovate and retrofit existing federally-administered social housing. To date 1,310 projects are underway or completed, including the renovation and retrofit of 122 existing social housing projects in Alberta. Addressing First Nations Housing Needs: A total of $400 million over two years will be delivered through CMHC and INAC to create new, federally-assisted on-reserve housing and to renovate and retrofit existing social housing. To date, CMHC has invested in the construction of 275 new social housing projects and the renovation and retrofit of existing social housing projects in Alberta. Municipal Infrastructure Lending Program: Up to $2 billion is available over two years in direct, low-cost loans to municipalities for municipal housing-related infrastructure. To date, 273 low-cost loans totalling more than $2 billion have been approved, including 2 low-cost loans approved for a total of $ 5.68 million in Alberta.” It is interesting to examine more closely the interactive map showing federal partnerships in Calgary. I found only one small affordable housing project, numerous recreation facilities upgrades, etc.

2011-03 Under the “Supporting Vibrant Communities” in the 2011 Federal Budget, the Next Phase of Canada’s Economic Action Plan announced additional support for culture and communities with new budget measures, including support for Aboriginal people, such as: Marking the 100th anniversary of the Grey Cup and the Calgary Stampede with $5 million toward each of the anniversary celebrations. “The Next Phase of Canada’s Economic Action Plan: A Low-Tax Plan for Jobs and Growth.”

2011-03-18 “The 14th Street N.W. Brenda Strafford Foundation Affordable Housing Initiative. The complex will feature 85 two bedroom apartments of which 33 units are targeted to support women and families leaving domestic violence. The Calgary Housing Company currently provides 24 units of housing to Foundation clients. Funding for the program included an additional from the $14 million Brenda Strafford Foundation and $7.9 million in capital funding from the federal and provincial governments under the Canada-Alberta Affordable Housing Partnership Initiative. (Calgary Herald 2008-06-27) .” The Canada-Alberta Affordable Housing Agreement is comprised of a commitment of $98.62 million from each of the two senior levels of government. In total, the federal and provincial governments have invested more than $197 million in the program, which provided over 3,600 affordable housing units in Alberta. (more)

2011-02 Of the 506,607 mortgages in 2011-02 in Alberta, 4,212 or 0.83% are in arrears compared to a national average of 0.45%. according to the latest data from the Canadian Bankers Association (2011-02). “Homeowners in Alberta this year reached a record high for percentage of mortgages in arrears in any month since statistics were kept by the association in the province starting in 1990, reaching 0.84% of total mortgages in January. The statistic shows Albertans are about twice as likely to fall behind as the national average of 0.45%. Manitoba had the lowest percentage, at 0.29% in arrears this year thus far. The national high was in January 1997, when 0.65% of mortgages were in arrears (CBC 2011-05-05).”

2011 Alberta government committed to a 10-year plan to end homelessness.

“There continues to be too much reliance on the for-profit sector in addressing affordable housing needs and too little investment in this issue. The waiting lists for low-income affordable rental housing are years long in the major cities of this province. Meanwhile some of our most vulnerable citizens, including children, people with mental illnesses, and seniors, are left in housing that is either far too expensive or far too poor in quality, and they all pay the price in their health and in their safety.This government eliminated funding of important social housing years ago, and a huge homelessness and housing problem soon developed in our province. With the return of a stronger economy under way and more people coming to Alberta’s labour market, we will see more difficulties (Brian Mason 2011).”

2011 Canada’s Economic Action Plan provides a meagre “$850 million to provinces and territories, over two years, for the renovation and retrofit of existing provincially/territorially administered social housing. Overall, the Economic Action Plan includes $2 billion for the construction of new and the renovation of existing social housing, plus up to $2 billion in low-cost loans to municipalities for housing-related infrastructure. Canada’s Economic Action Plan builds on the Government of Canada’s commitment in 2008 of more than $1.9 billion, over five years, to improve and build new affordable housing and help the homeless.”

2010-11-04 Ivy Zhang, Ivy; Walters, Patrick. “Why does the City of Calgary experience financial stress in providing services to Calgarians, even in good economic times?” A short answer is that, Calgary over-contributes to the balance sheets of the federal and provincial governments, leaving the local government with less than adequate revenue to fund its spending responsibilities.. . . [S]trong labour market conditions in Calgary have acted as a magnet for workers from outside the region. This has created an equally high demand for shelter and support services to address issues such as homelessness and affordable housing – issues that need all orders of government to address. Downloading of many government housing and support programs.”

2010- In Edmonton After the 2009 downturn, it was single-family subdivisions that came back quicker and stronger, representing the bulk of the 34 per cent increase in residential construction permits last year.

2010 In Calgary nearly 6,000 single-family detached houses were built in Calgary (most in the NESW suburbs). There were only 3,000 new multiple-family units under construction.

2010 Attainable Homes Calgary Corporation (AHCC) is a non-profit organization and wholly owned subsidiary of The City of Calgary. The goal of AHCC’s Attainable Home Ownership Program is to develop 1,000 well-appointed, entry-level homes at a price attainable for individuals and families earning $53,000 – $80,000 in household income annually. Attainable Homes partnered with Intergulf-Sidex developers to build the Beacon Heights multi-family complex.

2009 “Canada is one of the few countries in the world without a national housing strategy (United Nations, 2009). Many of the federal governments’ expenditures are cost-sharing, one-time only funding initiatives that lack long-term leadership on homelessness ( United Nations (2009). Report of the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context, Miloon Kothari. Based on Mission to Canada 9–22 October 2007.”

2009 “The highest average monthly rents for two-bedroom apartments in new and existing structures were in Vancouver ($1,169), Calgary ($1,099), Toronto ($1,096), and Ottawa ($1,028). The apartment vacancy rate in the Calgary CMA rose 3.2 percentage points from 2.1 per cent in October 2008 to 5.3 per cent in October 2009. Average rent for a two-bedroom unit was $1,099 per month in October 2009, down from $1,148 in October 2008. The vacancy rate for row (townhouse) rentals was 4.7 per cent in 2009, representing an increase of two percentage points from the previous year. Calgary’s 2009 purpose built rental stock had 684 fewer apartments and nine more row units than in 2008 (more).”

2008-09 The Government of Canada announced $1.9 billion, over five years, for housing and homelessness programs for low-income Canadians. As part of this investment, the Affordable Housing Initiative (AHI) was extended until March 31, 2011. CMHC. Affordable Housing Initiative

2007 http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/bu/olsh/louisedocs/LAS2007-111.doc.pdf

2007 “Since 2000, Supporting Communities Partnership Initiative (SCPI) provided approximately $850 million in funding for strategic investments that address homelessness (Falvo 2007).”

2007 Nick Falvo (2007) presented various models for expenditure of a $100 million annual input to affordable housing. “Model 1: $125,000 of equity (i.e., up-front cash) provided at the development stage would be sufficient to create a 450-square-foot bachelor unit of non-profit housing in Toronto that would ultimately require monthly rent equivalent to a single welfare recipient’s (no dependents) shelter allowance from Ontario Works (c.$342/month). This model estimates a $25,000 cost for land, $70,000 for construction and “hard costs,” and $30,000 for soft costs. It also estimates that the units last only 30 years and then lose all of their value. $100,000,000.00 / $125,000 = 800 x 30 = 24,000 household years. $100 million spent on building non-profit housing provides sufficient equity to build roughly 800 bachelor units for 800 core-need individuals. Model 2: Provide an average monthly rent supplement c. government $500 or $6,000 per person per year. $100 million spent on rent supplements provides annual, one-time funding to take roughly 16,667 core-need individuals (most of whom are single) off the street, into shelter. Model 3: $166,000 of equity to create a 2-bedroom unit. The Math: $100,000,000.00 / $166,000 = 602 x 30 = 18,060 household years. $100 million foregone on tax credits awarded to individuals or corporations could provide sufficient equity to build roughly 602 bachelor units for 602 core-need households. $100 million in foregone tax revenue offered through a basic refundable tax credit program provides annual, one-time funding to 55, 556 welfarerecipient households (Falvo 2007).””

2007 “The persistence of poverty, especially in a wealthy and industrialized nation like Canada, is clearly regarded by the treaty bodies as a human rights failure. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/ngos/PHRC_Canada42.pdf” (See “The Consensus on Canada.” The treaty bodies have repeatedly expressed grave concern, particularly about disastrous levels of homelessness (CESCR 2006, paras. 28, 62; CESCR 1998, paras. 24, 34, 35, 46) and resulting damaging effects, including damage to health (CESCR 2006, para. 57; CCPR 1999, para. 12), lack of adequate housing, especially for children and youth (CESCR 1998, para. 35, CRC 1995, para. 17), Aboriginal peoples (CESCR 2006, para. 24; CRC 1995, para. 17), and women (CESCR 2006, para. 26; CEDAW 2003, paras. 383, 384). http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/ngos/PHRC_Canada42.pdf

2005 “Armine Yalnizyan pointed out – Canada had a population of 31 million. 1.7 million Canadians of a total population of 31 million were underhoused or non-housed (Canadian Housing and Renewal Association). That’s 5.5% of the Canadian population without safe, decent and affordable housing (Crowe, Cathy. 2005-01http://tdrc.net/resources/public/Crowe-Newsletter_01-05.htm).”

2006-06 “Municipalities have been under-investing in infrastructure because of fiscal constraints. A number of cities have attempted to measure the magnitude of this infrastructure gap or deficit. The City of Calgary currently has a shortfall, or infrastructure gap, of $5.4 billion over the next ten years (FCM. 2006-06.“Our Cities Our Future Addressing the fiscal imbalance in Canada’s citie today”).”

2006 Edmonton and Calgary combined account for 64.5% of Alberta’s GDP (Conference Board of Canada).

2006-06-22  “While the City of Calgary encourages builders and developers to create affordable housing options (the Planning and Regulation section of the city’s affordable housing strategy states that a primary goal is to “encourage competition and choice in the housing marketplace”) it has yet to implement any firm legislation or policies in this regard. The Municipal Government Act of Alberta prevented cities within the province from dictating affordable housing policies to any private builder or developer. The Act was due for review in November 2006, leaving the door on affordable housing legislation wide open (Evdokimoff 2006-06-22.”

Pomeroy, Steve. 2005-03. “The Cost of Homelessness: Analysis of Alternate Responses in Four Canadian Cities.” Prepared for National Secretariat on Homelessness.

2005Looking Ahead, Moving Forwardhttp://www.calgary.ca/DocGallery/BU/mayor/councils_priorities.pdf

2005 Calgary’s “homeless population grew by 49 per cent between 2002 and 2004; in 2003, two-thirds of Calgary’s poor were ‘working poor’ who received no income support; and close to ?ve per cent of Calgarians went to the Inter-Faith Food Bank for help “Looking Ahead, Moving Forward 2005“.

2004 There were 2,600 homeless people in Calgary (more).

2004-05 “Societal Costs of Homelessness.” Prepared for the Edmonton Joint Planning Committee of Housing and the Calgary Homeless Foundation, by IBI Group.

2005 “Outside the framework of the AHI, $1.6 billion over two years was pledged in the 2005 NDP/Liberal budget (a.k.a., Bill C-48). Most of this money was allocated into three housing trust funds by the Harper government in the 2006 federal budget. While not part of the AHI, this has added momentum on the affordable housing front. (2007). The leader of Canada’s NDP agreed to support the federal budget in 2005 if an additional $1.6 billion was allocated for affordable housing.”

2005 Social Researchers Sawatsky and Stroick (2005) presented their report entitled Thresholds for Locating Affordable Housing: Applying the Literature to the Local Context. City of Calgary.

“Canada stands out as one of the few Western nations that rely almost completely on the market mechanism to supply, allocate, and maintain its housing stock (Scanlon and Whitehead, 2004). The market is the mechanism by which about 95% of Canadian households obtain their housing (Hulchanski 2005).holds for Locating Affordable Housing: Applying the Literature to the Local Context (Hulchanski, David J. 2005-01. “Rethinking Canada’s Housing Affordability Challenge.” Discussion paper. For the Government of Canada’s Canadian Housing Framework Initiative. p. 1).”

2005 Ecological Footprint study found that Calgary residents have the highest Ecological Footprint of any Canadian city at 9.9 global hectares per person – a lifestyle that, if everyone lived that way, would require five Earths to support. 2004

2005Straight talk about affordable housing.”

2005-07-04 “Acquisition of Affordable Housing Lands for Municipal Purposes.” Policy Number: AMCW001; Report Number: LASC2005-123; Approved by:Business Unit: Corporate Properties & Building.

2004-2005 Affordable Housing Initiative (AHI) Phase II introduced new programs in the areas of home ownership programs, targeting of AHI-funded programs, cost-sharing arrangements and provision of rent supplements.

2004 Affordable Housing is a Council priority as identified in Looking Ahead, Moving Forward 2002-2004

2004-06-07, in response to the lack of new units, Council directed Administration to develop a short term affordable housing development strategy as phase 1 of a larger five year Sustainable Resource Management Plan (LASC2004-155). http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/bu/cityclerks/council_policies/amcw001.pdf

2004 CPS99-39 & CPS2002-57 directed Administration to identify and set aside City owned sites for future affordable housing initiatives. http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/bu/cityclerks/council_policies/amcw001.pdf

2004-07-24 The City of Calgary Council approved a short-term affordable housing development strategy, LAS2004-178 “Calgary’s Affordable Housing Sustainable Resource Management Plan.”as the first phase of a five-year Affordable Housing Sustainable Resource Management Plan. Council directed City administration to: (1) take a leadership role in the development of non-market housing; (2) solicit development proposals from the private sector to create new non-market housing units; and (3) identify City owned surplus sites to support the development of City led social housing initiatives (Sawatsky and Stroick 2005).”

2004-07-24 The City of Calgary Council approved LAS2004-178 Affordable Housing Sustainable Resource Management Plan – Phase 2: Short Term Development Strategy 2004. Council directed Administration to “take a leadership role in the development of 200 units of affordable housing annually to maximize the Affordable Housing Partnership Initiative funding”.

2003 “Cities experienced significant cuts to the social assistance systems in the mid 1990s. The reduction of income supports is universally seen as one of the main reasons for high poverty rates and the growing income gap. (ARUNDEL, ET AL, 2003) (more).”

2003-06-17 TD Economics. “Affordable Housing in Canada: in Search of a New Paradigm.” Urban areas comprised a staggering 80 per cent of Canadian economic activity and employment. Working to find solutions to the problem of
affordable housing is a smart economic policy. An inadequate supply of housing can be a major impediment to business investment and growth, and can influence immigrants’ choices of where to locate. Implementing solutions to resolve this issue ties in well with the TD goal of raising Canada’s living standards and overall quality of life.”

2003 Affordable Housing Initiative (AHI) Phase II began with a meagre federal commitment of $320 million nationwide to provide additional funding for housing targeted to low-income households in communities where there is a significant need for affordable housing. Under Phase II the maximum federal funding is 50 per cent of capital costs to a maximum of $75,000 per housing unit to reduce rents to levels affordable to low -income households. (CMHC)

2003-02-27 Alberta announced $8.5 million in new provincial funding which will be matched by a $8.5 million federal contribution under the Canada-Alberta Affordable Housing Agreement. This brings total funding for the initiatives to $17 million for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2003. This amount will also be enhanced through contributions from other partners including municipalities, local community housing authorities, non-profit organizations and private sector companies.” It should be noted that if one unit costs c. 90,000 to build. it costs c.

2002-07 City of Calgary submitted Corporate Affordable Housing Strategy “Implementing a vision for the future… “A range of housing options exist for all ages, income groups, family type.

2002-06-24 The Governments of Canada and Alberta announced the Affordable Housing Program Agreement which provided funding (2002-2007?) to help increase the supply of affordable housing in the province. Federal funding of $67.12 million will be matched by an equal contribution from the province and other partners to facilitate the development of affordable housing in high need areas of the province. It was the sixth affordable housing agreement signed in the past six months and confirmed the Government of Canada’s commitment to housing as a means to support strong and safe communities. “(more) NB. The total cost of one 100-unit apartment complex project was over $4 million.

2002 The citizens of Calgary sent $4.6 billion more in taxes and other payments to Ottawa than they received in various benefits from the federal government (K & L Spatial Economics).

2002 Annual spending on homelessness initiatives in Calgary were c. $72.4 million.

1996-2001 “Provincial/territorial and federal governments have enjoyed an average 25 per cent increase in their revenues from 1996 to 2001. Municipalities have experienced only an average 14 per cent increase in revenues during that period (FCM, 2005).”

2001-11 “Federal, provincial and territorial housing Ministers outlined broad parameters for bilateral Affordable Housing Program Agreements. Federal funding was limited to a maximum of $25,000 per housing unit, to a total nationwide of only $680 million in funding in Phase I for the creation of new rental housing, major renovation and conversion (CMHC).”

2001 “The federal government agreed to a framework agreement with the provinces and territories wherein it would eventually commit $1 billion towards affordable housing over a five-year span. There was no stipulation in the framework agreement around core need. The federal government’s agreement with each province and territory was different, with each province/territory having to commit matching funds of different types (a great deal of the “matching funds” were not cash and did not come directly from the province/territory in question). The entire process is called the Affordable Housing Initiative (AHI). The AHI represented a very different way of financing affordable housing. The minimum affordability stipulation was that each unit had to be at or below average to 20 years). Funded programs under the AHI included home ownership, rental housing, new construction, renovation, urban revitalization,” conversion, new rent supplements, and supportive housing programs(Falvo 2007).”

2001 The provincial and municipal social housing agencies (Calgary Housing Authority and Calhome Properties) merged created the municipally owned and operated Calgary Housing Company (CHC). CHC administers social housing programs (non-seniors) in Calgary through the ownership or management of approximately 7500 housing units. Calgary Housing Company (CHC) is a City of Calgary owned corporation providing safe and affordable housing solutions to citizens of Calgary. CHC operates and manages over 10,000 subsidized and affordable housing units and has a variety of housing options for low-income households including duplexes, townhouses and high-rise apartments. CHC has a reporting relationship to Corporate Properties & Buildings, but functions under its own independent Board of Directors with a mandate to provide affordable housing solutions to Calgarians.

2001 “The Government of Canada provides financial assistance for the supply of new affordable rental housing under the Affordable Housing Program. Then, in November 2001, after almost a decade of withdrawal from assistance for affordable housing, the federal government committed $680 million towards rental housing (to be spent over five years) (Falvo 2007). By the end of 2007-2008, the Federal Government’s investment in this program will total CAD$1 billion, an amount that will be matched by provincial and territorial governments.”

2001 Canada “is one of the one of the more inegalitarian Western nations (that is, there is a wide gap between rich and poor) and ranks near the bottom of the list in an eighteen-country comparison of net social expenditure by the OECD (Adema, 2001, Table 7 cited in (Hulchanski 2005). Hulchanski, David J. 2005-01. “Rethinking Canada’s Housing Affordability Challenge.” Discussion paper. For the Government of Canada’s Canadian Housing Framework Initiative. p. 1

1999 “One of the first signs that the federal government was interested in getting back into affordable housing was the 1999 announcement of the Supporting Communities Partnership Initiative (SCPI) (Falvo 2007).”

1998-11 Mayors of Canada’s largest cities at the caucus of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) passed a resolution declaring homelessness a national disaster.

1998 Canada alone “holds the dubious distinction of having received the strongest rebuke ever delivered by the United Nations for inactivity on homelessness and other poverty issues. In 1998, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights maintained that Canada’s failure to implement policies for the poorest members of the population in the previous 5 years had “exacerbated homelessness among vulnerable groups during a time of strong economic growth and increasing affluence” (p.15). The irony was that this rebuke was given in the midst of Canada having been named for several years in a row as the best country in the world in which to live. Thus, what we are seeing is a disturbing situation where a steadily increasing level of homelessness exists in the very heartland of prosperity and comfort. (Pohl, Rudy. 2001-11. “Homelessness in Canada.)”

The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a highly critical and detailed report on the Canada’s social policies in its 1998 review of Canada’s compliance with these rights (United Nations, 1998) particularly about disastrous levels of homelessness (CESCR 1998, paras. 24, 34, 35, 46) and resulting damaging effects, including damage to health (CESCR 1998, paras. 24, 34, 35, 46) and resulting damaging effects, including damage to health (CCPR 1999, para. 12), lack of adequate housing, especially for children and youth (CESCR 1998, para. 35, CRC 1995, para. 17), Aboriginal peoples (CRC 1995, para. 17).

1996 The Calgary economy generated 24% of all new jobs in Canada, even though the city contained less than 3% of the population (k & l consulting, 2003).

1996 CMHC deemed that 20% of Canadian households (1.7 million households) were in core housing need. These households could not
find adequate and suitable housing without spending 30% or more of their pre-tax income. CMHC found that a disturbing 656,000 households (7%) spent at least half of their before-tax income on shelter in 1996, up from 422,000 households, or 5%, in 1991. While accounting for only 35% of all households, almost 70% of those in core need were renters. Much of the analysis, advocacy and action on affordable housing suffers from three flaws, in our view:
• Income levels are taken as given. Too little thought is given to ameliorating the root cause of the affordable housing problem – that there are simply too many low income households in Canada. The focus has primarily been on measures to boost supply, with an emphasis on incentives to increase the overall rental supply – which has only a limited impact at the affordable end of the scale. Many of the measures that have been recommended
as a means of stimulating this new supply (whether expenditure-based or tax-based) are inefficient, which is to say that they entail a high public cost per unit of affordable housing created. TD recommended that governments adjust the design of federal and provincial benefit and tax systems to “make work pay” by reducing the clawback rate for benefits for low-income households. Programs such as the federal-provincial National Child Benefit (NCB) initiative have dealt with the poverty trap to some extent by effectively combining income support with social services. However, the high taxback issue remains. Provincial governments need to step up their efforts and become a leading contributor within the Affordable Housing Framework agreement. There also needs to be more recognition of the fact that municipal governments are currently in no position to live up to their side of the bargain. New responsibilities have been laid at their doorstep in recent years, as a result of provincial and federal downloading and offloading of services. Yet, municipalities have few revenue tools to draw on beyond the slow-growing (and flawed) property tax. As we have stated in all of our reports on Canada’s cities over the past year, municipalities need a more sustainable funding arrangement, which arms them with increased flexibility (TD 2003).

1996 In the city of Calgary, with one of the most acute housing shortages, only 16 new units of rental housing were built in 1996 (more).

1996“The federal government further removed itself from low-income housing supply by transferring responsibility for most existing federal social housing to the provinces (Hulchanski, J. David. 2009. “Homelessness in Canada: Past, Present, Future.”).

1996 “A survey in Calgary found that of the 615 homeless people surveyed on 26 May 1996, 20% were Aboriginals, 3% Asiatics and 3% Blacks (City of Calgary 1996 cited in Library of Parliament 1999).”(17) City of Calgary, Homeless Count in Downtown Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1996, City of Calgary Community and Social Development Department of Social Research Unit, 1996.

1993 All funds for social housing were cut from the federal budget (Hulchanski, 2002: 8-15; Chisholm, 2003: 5-11). Most provinces, including Alberta, followed suit.

1992 Canada introduced the Home Buyers’ Plan which was the only form of federal assistance for home-buyers. Canadians who meet certain eligibility conditions can withdraw up to C$20,000 tax-free from their Registered Retirement Saving Plans (RRSPs) for house purchase. The money remains tax-exempt if it is repaid within 15 years. Since its inception in 1992, some 1.2 million people have participated in the programme, channelling C$12.0 billion to the housing market.

1984 – 1993 The Canadian Federal Government withdrew from providing housing assistance for low-income Canadians (Sawatsky and Stroick 2005).” This is not surprising given the general trend away from collective state solutions to a social and economic model that relies solely on the “the market” for services including shelter. It also represents a shift away from seeing housing as a home, to seeing housing as an investment. The problem with this approach is that the market will only provide housing to those who can pay for it – in other words, lower- and moderate income people who cannot afford market price for homeownership or, increasingly, for rental housing are priced out of the market. If the gap between the rich and the poor continues to increase as it has since 1980, housing issues will continue to be a concern (2011).” “The co-op and non-profit programs (with their novel “income mix” approach) introduced in 1970s were terminated in 1984 (Falvo 2007).”.

1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. WHO, Geneva.

1964-1984 The Canadian Federal Government “built 200,000 public housing units and established a variety of housing initiatives, including non-profit and co-op housing programs, as well as a native housing program. This period can be characterized as one with an ‘inclusionary philosophy’ in which the social need for affordable housing in Canada was being addressed (Sawatsky and Stroick 2005).”

1977 Canada did not have a homelessness issue (Hulchanski 2009-02-18).

1949 – 1963 The Canadian Federal Government was not significantly involved in the provision of affordable housing under PM Louis St. Laurent (1948-1957) and PM John Diefenbaker (1957 – 1963). Even with public concern for more social housing, only 12,000 units were built for low-income Canadians (Sawatsky and Stroick 2005).

1949 The Canadian National Housing Act was implemented with amendments.

1945- “After the Second World War, improvements in housing finance, residential land servicing and building techniques, materials, and regulations produced high-quality housing for the vast majority of Canadian households (Hulchanski, Davis J. 2005-01. “Rethinking Canada’s Housing Affordability Challenge.” Discussion paper. For the Government of Canada’s Canadian Housing Framework Initiative. p. 1)”

1938 The Canadian National Housing Act was established but it was not implemented pending amendments.

2011-06-09“Canada’s cities Poor relations: Mayors need more money and more powers.” The Economist. Vancouver.

Selected Webliography and Bibliography

The Economist. 2011-06-09. “Canada’s cities Poor relations: Mayors need more money and more powers.” Vancouver.

Calgary Herald. 2008-06-27. “New project will shelter abused women.”

Evdokimoff, Natasha. 2006-06-22. “Is the Sky the Limit? Finding solutions to Calgary’s affordable housing problem.” Condo Living.

Falvo, Nick. 2007-12. “Alternate Approaches to Addressing the Lack of Affordable Housing in Canada.” Paper presented to Professor George Fallis. Policy Alternatives to Reduce Core Housing Need AS SOSC 4099 3.00 A Directed Reading

Falvo, Nick. 2007-12. “Alternate Approaches to Addressing the Lack of Affordable Housing in Canada.” Presentation for PEF Panel: “Interdisciplinary Approaches to Economic Issues” Canadian Economics Association. Annual Meetings
Dalhousie University. Halifax, Nova Scotia. June 1-3, 2007

The Economist. 2011-06-09. “Canada’s cities Poor relations: Mayors need more money and more powers.” Vancouver.”Downtown Eastside, a ghetto of crime, poverty and drug addiction that is the country’s sickest urban area. Soaring house prices intermingle with homelessness. The middle class is being squeezed out to the suburbs.” “Provincial governments have neglected their responsibility for such matters as social housing, welfare, mental illness, drug addiction and policing. All told, Canada’s big cities need at least C$238 billion ($243 billion) to repair and expand infrastructure, according to the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. But municipal governments lack both money and powers. They get only eight cents out of every tax dollar. Their revenues come mainly from property taxes.” “They have lobbied the federal government to make permanent C$2 billion in annual funding programmes for roads, housing and police set to expire in 2014.” “[R]ural areas continue to be over-represented in the House of Commons. But four out of every five Canadians now live in a city,

Hulchanski, David. J. 2002-12. “Housing Policy for Tomorrow’s Cities.” Discussion Paper F|27. Family Network.

Hulchanski, David J. 2005-01. “Rethinking Canada’s Housing Affordability Challenge.” Discussion paper. For the Government of Canada’s Canadian Housing Framework Initiative. p. 1

Hulchanski, J.D. 2009-02-18. Conference keynote address, “Growing Home: Housing and Homelessness in Canada: Past, Present, Future.” University of Calgary.

Pohl, Rudy. 2001-11. (“Homelessness in Canada.)”

Sawatsky, Janet; Stroick, Sharon M. 2005. “Thresholds for Locating Affordable Housing: Applying the Literature to the Local Context.” City of Calgary.

Vrbanovic, Berry. 2011-06-06. StatementFederation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM).

FCM. 2011-04-06. “FCM Releases Federal Election PLatform: Parties need plan as 40% of municipal funding expires.” Date accessed: June 05, 2012.

Library of Parliament. 1999-01-18. Homelessness.

http://www.fcm.ca/english/View.asp?mp=1&x=1796

http://thechronicleherald.ca/NovaScotia/1246833.html
http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/inpr/afhoce/fias/fias_015.cfm
http://www.canada.com/calgaryherald/news/city/story.html?id=b8011963-62c7-4188-af96-5a3394771297
http://www.td.com/economics/special/house03.pdf
http://www.economist.com/node/18805931?story_id=18805931
http://www.condolivingonline.com/calgary/articles/2199/is-the-sky-the-limit
http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/CPRNHousingPolicy.pdf
http://www.alberta.ca/acn/201105/30331BBB2AC11-97BA-E4A5-8A2958658E2B2395.html
http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb991-e.pdf
http://www.streetlevelconsulting.ca/homepage/homelessnessInCanada_Part1.htm

already pinged
http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/Hulchanski-Housing-Affd-pap.pdf
http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/BU/corporateproperties/affordable_housing_strategy.pdf
http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/bu/cityclerks/council_policies/amcw001.pdf
http://www.calgary.ca/DocGallery/BU/mayor/councils_priorities.pdf
http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/bu/cns/homelessness/thresholds_locating_affordable_housing.pdf
http://www.calgary.ca/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_0_780_237_0_43/http%3B/content.calgary.ca/CCA/City+Hall/Business+Units/Office+of+Land+Servicing+and+Housing/Affordable+Housing/Affordable+Housing.htm
http://www.fcm.ca/english/View.asp?mp=813&x=814
http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/ngos/PHRC_Canada42.pdf
http://snipurl.com/27wya9
http://www.fcm.ca/CMFiles/bcmcfinal1LND-3282008-4938.pdf
http://www.fcm.ca/english/View.asp?mp=1590&x=1719
http://www.fcm.ca/english/View.asp?mp=1590&x=1748
http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/commentary/fast-facts-electing-house-canadians-or-not
http://www.socialeconomyhub.ca/sites/default/files/2009_Hulchanski%20_Homelessness%20Past-Present-Future_Conf-%20Keynote-address.pdf
http://www.assembly.ab.ca/ISYS/LADDAR_files%5Cdocs%5Chansards%5Chan%5Clegislature_27%5Csession_4%5C20110511_1330_01_han.pdf
http://www.cba.ca/contents/files/statistics/stat_mortgage_db050_en.pdf
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1998/WHO_HPR_HEP_98.1.pdf
http://www.cprn.org/documents/50550_EN.pdf
http://www.calgaryhomeless.com/users/folderdata/%7B0AB0E6A0-E12C-46D9-9518-E09324EAD190%7D/Cost_of_Homelessness_-_Four_Cities_March_2005_FINAL.pdf
http://www.westerninvestor.com/index.php/news/55-features/340-sprawl-brawl
http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/odpub/pdf/63390.pdf?lang=en
http://www.budget.gc.ca/2011/glance-apercu/brief-bref-eng.pdf
http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/gdps02a-eng.htm
http://www.fcm.ca/english/View.asp?mp=1&x=1796
http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/bu/finance/economics/policy_analysis/fiscal_imbalance_calgary_experience.pdf
http://thechronicleherald.ca/NovaScotia/1246833.html
http://www.condolivingonline.com/calgary/articles/2199/is-the-sky-the-limit
http://www.economist.com/node/18805931?story_id=18805931
http://www.alberta.ca/acn/201103/30091C979B907-A8EA-93E5-957DAB2CC29BF080.html
http://www.td.com/economics/special/house03.pdf
http://www.streethealth.ca/Downloads/NickCEA-0507.pdf

Potentially Useful Links on Affordable Housing

Composition of Homeless Population
HOMELESSNESS IN CANADA
www.calgary.ca/_layouts/cocis/DirectDownload.aspx?target=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.calgary.ca%2FCSPS%2FCNS%2FDocuments%2Fhomelessness%2Fthresholds_locating_affordable_housing.pdf&noredirect=1&sf=1
www.progressive-economics.ca/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/Falvo.pdf
May 2007: Canada’s Lack of Affordable Housing | Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives
www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/CPRNHousingPolicy.pdf
New project will shelter abused women

secondarysuitesSES2007
Calgary Looks Toward Lower-Footprint Future

dt http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/bu/environmental_management/ecological_footprint/towards_preferred_future.pdf
dt Streetside Development Corporation : Past Projects
dt http://www.colliers-international.com/Calgary/Castleview/Castleview-Park-Apartments.pdfdt karoleena.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/graycie_spec_sheets.pdf
dt http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/81184/city-structures-02-bamford.pdf
dt Jan Gehl lecture on ‘Cities for People’ – Great Public Spaces (Calgary, AB) – Meetup
dt Archived – Budget 2011 (March 22, 2011) – Chapter 4: Supporting Job Creation
dt canada budget 2011 – Google Search
dt http://www.canurb.org/sites/default/files/reports/2010/PUB-2010-RenewCanada-GMiller-PHorgan-05.2010.pdf
dt FFWD – Calgary News & Views – News – Forecast? Cloudy with a chance of lawsuits
dt ginsler.com/sites/ginsler/files/socio047.pdf
dt Affordable Housing Techniques Publication
dt City N. Van – Housing – Affordable Housing Policies
dt ginsler.com/sites/ginsler/files/socio003.pdf
dt IZ Builder Conine
dt remaxottawa.com/dn/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=DvovulEIwZg%3D&tabid=57&mid=673
dt http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/fulltext/191100041e1t002.pdf?expires=1306513133&id=id&accname=freeContent&checksum=38E17C457B04B7F4838B0EAEFC3C461D
dt http://www.budget.gc.ca/2011/glance-apercu/brief-bref-eng.pdf
dt 6566024-How-Should-Housing-Densities-Be-Determined-a-Comparative-Analysis-of-Brisbane-and-en
dt Cities for People – Google Booksdt Projects Map – Canada’s Economic Action Plan
dt Affordable Housing Money Counts – Google Docsdt
“calgary homeless foundation” “societal costs of homelessness” 2004 – Google Search
dt $140 square foot to build a housing unit calgary? – Google Searchdt 2011 November 21 « Decisions, Decisions, Decisionsdt 4 million to build 36 unit multi-family complex? – Google Searchdt A leg up for Britain’s generation rent – World – Macleans.cadt A practical framework for expanding affordable housing services in Australia: learning from experience | Australian Policy Onlinedt A Tale of Two Town Houses – Magazine – The Atlanticdt Affordable Housing – CPD – HUDdt affordable housing – Google Scholardt affordable housing – Google Searchdt Affordable Housing | CMHCdt Affordable Housing and Homelessnessdt Affordable housing debate heats up amid cutbacks – The Whig Standard – Ontario, CAdt Affordable Housing Initiative | CMHCdt Affordable Housing Institutedt Affordable Housing Institutedt Africa’s infrastructure: A road to somewhere | The Economistdt AHI: United States » OECD bubbles? LMNO bubbles! OSAR GSE M? Part 5, regulate rents, but not too muchdt Alberta budget promises record $33B in spending – Business – CBC Newsdt Amazon.com: Affordable Housing and Public Policy: Strategies for Metropolitan Chicago (A Chicago Assembly Book) (9780962675522): Lawrence B. Joseph: Booksdt Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl … – Basudeb Bhatta – Google Booksdt Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl … – Basudeb Bhatta – Google Booksdt Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl from Remote Sensing Datadt Australia’s affordable housing crisis: the price of poor public policy – On Line Opinion – 20/10/2003dt Backgrounder: 2010/2011 Housing Capital Initiatives Projects – Canada’s Economic Action Plandt BBC News – ‘Housing shortage crisis’ predicted in IPPR reportdt BBC News – Housing: David Cameron vows to ‘get Britain building’dt BBC News – Ken Livingstone pledges ‘London Living Rent’ systemdt Big cities back a pennydt Bronconnier floats idea of legalizing basement suites – Calgary – CBC Newsdt Building and Construction Canada – Spring 2010 [20 - 21]dt calgary multi-family 3 storey complex 36 units construction costs? – Google Searchdt Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra singing Tweets goes viraldt canada cost of homelessness – Google Scholardt canada’s economic action plan social housing – Google Searchdt Canadian Homelessness Research Networkdt Canadian Political and Economic Newsdt CARH – 2012 Mid-Year Meeting Brochure/Agendadt CBC: The fifth estate – No Way Home, The Cost of Homelessnessdt CBI: CBI comments on prime minister’s speech to CBI Annual Conferencedt Chartered Institute of Housing – Search Resultsdt Chris Tilly’s Research : Center for Industrial Competitiveness : UMass Lowelldt City Mayors: Affordable housing – USAdt CMHC :: INSURED FINANCINGdt Concerns raised with Calgary alderman over Eau Claire condo land dealdt Congress for the New Urbanismdt CUCS – David Hulchanski – Housing Policy for Tomorrow’s Cities (Report)
dt CUCS – J. David Hulchanskidt Dab_solver – affordable housing
dt Definition of general housing terms – Housing – Department for Communities and Local Government
dt Delivering Affordable Housing – Housing – Department for Communities and Local Government
dt Divided We Stand – Books – OECD iLibrary
dt Divided We Stand | OECD Free Preview | Powered by Keepeek Digital Asset Management | http://www.keepeek.comdt Divided we Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising
dt Do Rising Tides Lift All Prices? Income Inequality and Housing Affordability
dt Does Affordable Housing Detrimentally Affect Property Values? A Review of the Literature
dt Downtown land deal to go under microscope – Calgary – CBC Newsdt Economic inequality – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
dt Economics focus: House of horrors, part 2 | The Economist
dt FAST FACTS: “housing” that will lead to a need for more social housing | Canadian Centre for Policy Alternativesdt FCM – Housing
dt Five economic tests for the majority government | Canadian Centre for Policy Alternativesdt From Need to Affordability: An Analysis of UK Housing Objectives
dt From Need to Affordability: An Analysis of UK Housing Objectivesdt From Need to Affordability: An Analysis of UK Housing Objectives
dt Global house prices: Castles made of sand | The Economistdt Government program boosts Brazil housing market | Reuters
dt health and homelessness (PRB99-1E)
dt Help:Footnotes – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediadt Home – gltn
dt Homelessness
dt Homelessness | Here to Help, A BC Information Resource for Individuals and Families Managing Mental Health or Substance Use Problemsdt Homelessness in Canada – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediadt Homelessness: Past, Present, Future – Hulchanski – 2009dt House building scheme designed to kickstart market unveiled | Money | The Guardiandt Housing – Housing Need / Indicators of Well-being in Canadadt Housing Affordability and Needs Studies Based on Census Data | CMHCdt Housing Affordability Index – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediadt Housing and Urban Policydt Housing policy matters: a global … – Shlomo Angel – Google Books
dt Housing supply and demand – UK Parliamentdt Housing Unaffordability as Public Policy: The New Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey | Newgeography.comdt how much does it costs to build 1 family unit in a multi-family complex? – Google Searchdt Hulchanski 2008-2009 Homeless Families into and Out of Homelessness.dt ibi group. (2003). societal cost of homelessness. calgary: author. – Google Search
dt Initiative for Affordable Housing – Glossary
dt International perspectives on factors contibuting to homelessness (PRB99-1E)dt International perspectives on factors contibuting to homelessness (PRB99-1E)
dt International Standards – Adequate Housingdt intraspec.ca/2000_Hulchanski_Counting-Homeless-People.pdf
dt intraspec.ca/HART-Tool_December112009FINAL(2)%5B1%5D.pdf
dt intraspec.ca/HOMELESSNESS_in_Toronto.pdfdt Is Housing Unaffordable? Why Isn’t It More Affordable?dt ITC – News
dt JACKY Q. ZHANG–MMP Engineering – Providing quality structural engineering since 1978.
dt Joint government funding increases affordable housing across Alberta – Canada’s Economic Action Plan
dt Keeping to the Marketplace
dt Knowing when it’s green: A Citizen’s Guide to (LEED for) Neighborhood Development | Kaid Benfield’s Blog | Switchboard, from NRDC
dt Land Economy Staff – Ms Sarah MONK
dt Land Economy Staff – Professor Christine WHITEHEAD
dt Laying the Foundations: A Housing Strategy for England – Housing – Department for Communities and Local Government
dt Lessons from the History of Affordable Housing Cooperatives in the United States: A Case Study in American Affordable Housing Policy – page 12 | American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The
dt Lessons from the History of Affordable Housing Cooperatives in the United States: A Case Study in American Affordable Housing Policy – page 16 | American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The
dt Lessons from the History of Affordable Housing Cooperatives in the United States: A Case Study in American Affordable Housing Policy | American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The | Find Articles
dt Life of luxury
dt Manitoba Local Government | Province of Manitoba
dt Mayoral candidates split over housing – Calgary – CBC News
dt Mayoral hopefuls demand probe of land deal
dt Mayoral hopefuls demand probe of land deal
dt Mayors want $2.5B break; Big cities demand GST rebate, plus fuel, income, sales taxes Ambitious agenda draws cautious nod from Martin envoydt Measuring Housing Affordability: Looking Beyond the Mediandt Methodology for the Housing Affordability Indexdt mhupa.gov.in/w_new/AffordableHousing.pdfdt MIT CRE : Measuring Housing Affordability – The HAI Affordable Housing Index
dt New April 19, 2010 CMHC Canadian Mortgage Rules Summarydt Next federal budget must put rental housing market on solid ground – thestar.comdt Notes and definitions for affordable housing supply – Housing – Department for Communities and Local Governmentdt NRDC: LEED for Neighborhood Developmentdt Perspectives on Labour and Income – Measuring housing affordabilitydt PolicyOptions Wiki / Affordable Housing
dt Progress being made in Attawapiskat: Red Cross | CTV News
dt Public housing – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediadt Public Policy in Municipalities – Publicationsdt Publications and Reports | CMHCdt publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/NH18-23-55-4E.pdfdt QAHC – About Affordable Housing
dt Rebuilding an affordable, sustainable community in Galveston | Kaid Benfield’s Blog | Switchboard, from NRDC
dt Relationship between Housing Affordability and Economic Development in Mainland China—Case of Shanghai | Browse – Journal of Urban Planning and Development
dt rental market data canada – Google Search
dt Restructuring housing systems : from social to affordable housing? – LSE Research Online
dt Rich-poor divide widens in advanced economies – FT.com
dt Scientific Commons: A practical framework for expanding affordable housing services in Australia: learning from experience (2004), 2004 [Vivienne Milligan, Peter Phibbs, Kate Fagan, Nicole Gurran]dt Search Results | CMHCdt Shelter poverty : new ideas on housing affordability / by Michael E. Stone | Miami University Libraries
dt siteresources.worldbank.org/FINANCIALSECTOR/Resources/Affordable_rental_housing_schemes_USA_France.pdf
dt Sloan: Municipalities are seeking more stable fundingdt Social housing being renovated in London – Canada’s Economic Action Plan
dt Sprawl brawl
dt stratongina.net/files/ShelterintheStorm.pdf
dt Talk:Affordable housing – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
dt Taylor & Francis Online :: An affordability crisis in British housing: Dimensions, causes and policy impact – Housing Studies – Volume 9, Issue 1dt The affordability of homeownership to middle-income Americans
dt The Case for Congestion – Neighborhoods – The Atlantic Cities
dt The City of Calgary – Research on homelessness
dt The City of Calgary: Older Adult Housingdt The Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco: Economic Research, Educational Resources, Community Development, Consumer and Banking Informationdt The good, the bad and the ugly: Housing demand 2025 > Publication :: IPPRdt The Homeless Hub – Resource Precarious Housing and Hidden Homelessness Among Refugees, Asylum Seekers, and Immigrants in the Toronto Metropolitan Area
dt The LaCaille Group – Building and Construction Canada Magazine
dt The New Blackwell Companion to the City – Gary Bridge, Sophie Watson – Google Booksdt The New Blackwell Companion to the City – Gary Bridge, Sophie Watson – Google Books
dt U.K. fares worst on income inequality among advanced economies: OECD – The Globe and Mail
dt UN-HABITAT.:. Housing rights
dt UN-HABITAT.:. Land and Housing | Events | International Housing Summitdt Urban and Regional Planning – The Canadian Encyclopedia
dt vbn.aau.dk/files/13671493/SocialHousingInEurope.pdf
dt web.mit.edu/cre/research/hai/pdf/FPZ_021207.pdf
dt What does the literature tell us about the social and economic impact of housing? Report to the Scottish Government: Communities Analytical Servicesdt Wikipedia:Cheatsheet – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
dt Will Housing Projects Boost GDP? – Economic Observer News- China business, politics, law, and social issues
dt http://www.actu.org.au/Images/Dynamic/attachments/5552/ACTU-Housing-Options-jul07.pdf
dt http://www.affordablehousinginstitute.org/resources/library/DS_saopaulo_best_practices_2008.pdfdt http://www.ahuri.edu.au/downloads/NRV3/NRV3_Research_Paper_1.pdf
dt http://www.aiecon.org/advanced/suggestedreadings/PDF/sug71.pdf
dt http://www.bov.com/filebank/documents/25-34 Joseph Darmanin.pdf
dt http://www.cahhalifax.org/DOCS/costofhomelessnessjune06report.pdf
dt http://www.calgary.ca/CS/OLSH/Documents/Affordable-housing/Louise-Station-Project-Profile.pdf
dt http://www.calgary.ca/CSPS/CNS/Documents/homelessness/ff-01_definition_affordable_housing.pdf
dt http://www.calgary.ca/CSPS/CNS/Documents/Social-research-policy-and-resources/Affordable-housing-and-homelessness/ff-04_affordable_housing_homelessness.pdf
dt http://www.calgary.ca/docgallery/BU/planning/pdf/older_adult_housing/shifting_horizons.pdf
dt http://www.calgaryhomeless.com/users/folderdata/{0AB0E6A0-E12C-46D9-9518-E09324EAD190}/Cost_of_Homelessness_-_Four_Cities_March_2005_FINAL.pdf
dt http://www.citiescentre.utoronto.ca/Assets/Cities+Centre+Digital+Assets/pdfs/publications/Three+Cities+Within+Toronto+Hulchanski+2010.pdf
dt http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/corp/about/anrecopl/upload/Glossary-2010.pdf
dt http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/odpub/pdf/63057.pdfdt http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/odpub/pdf/63390.pdf?lang=en
dt http://www.cnhed.org/download/123321_U127242__746634/Continuum of Housing Report.pdf
dt http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/housing/pdf/141134.pdf
dt http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/housing/pdf/152897.pdf
dt http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/housing/pdf/2033676.pdf
dt http://www.cprn.org/documents/17350_en.pdf
dt http://www.cprn.org/documents/50550_EN.pdf
dt http://www.cprn.org/documents/51110_EN.pdf
dt http://www.demographia.com/dhi.pdf
dt http://www.demographia.com/dmg-oecd.pdf
dt http://www.fcm.ca/Documents/reports/The_Housing_Market_and_Canadas_Economic_Recovery_EN.pdfdt http://www.fig.net/pub/figpub/pub48/figpub48.pdf
dt http://www.freethechildren.com/getinvolved/youth/campaigns/onenightout/docs/One Night Out Fact Book.pdf
dt http://www.getbritainbuilding.org/assets/uploaded/docs/1.pdf
dt http://www.gltn.net/images/stories/gltn_capacity_development_strategy_-_overview.pdfdt http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDQQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.communityhousing.com.au%2Fresources%2FBP3%2520-%2520Objectives%2520and%2520Targets.doc&ei=DknlTsKFMOft0gGumI2ABg&usg=AFQjCNHxOdRH1-NTyfPPuTI6axmEXXEFkg
dt http://www.halifax.ca/planning/Homelessness/HomelessnessInHRM-Portrait.pdf
dt http://www.homelesshub.ca/ResourceFiles/Documents/6.2 Menzies – Homeless Aboriginal Men.pdfdt http://www.huduser.org/periodicals/cityscpe/vol1num3/winnick.pdf
dt http://www.ibwe.at/pdf/fk0509/IBWE-FK0509-ws_2-1_1.pdf
dt http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/gfsr/2011/01/pdf/summary.pdf
dt http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/gfsr/2011/01/pdf/text.pdf
dt http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2006/cr06210.pdf
dt http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2004/02/pdf/chapter2.pdf
dt http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2008/01/pdf/c3.pdf
dt http://www.ippr.org/images/media/files/publication/2011/05/Good bad and ugly – Housing demand 2025_1829.pdf
dt http://www.knowledgeplex.org/kp/text_document_summary/scholarly_article/relfiles/hpd_0401_whitehead.pdf
dt http://www.nationalhousingconference.org.au/downloads/1999/DayOne/judy_yates_paper.pdfdt http://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/pubs_p/docs/UDinHousing.pdf
dt http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/0/48/46901936.pdf
dt http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/32/20/47723414.pdf
dt http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/41/56/35756053.pdf
dt http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/11/46917384.pdf
dt http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons/lib/research/key_issues/Key-Issues-Housing-supply-and-demand.pdf
dt http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/Manitoba Office/2011/04/housing and elections April 2011.pdf
dt http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/National_Office_Pubs/socialwatch2004.pdfdt http://www.ppm-ppm.ca/SOTFS/Hulchanski.pdf
dt http://www.qahc.asn.au/images2/website/affordabilitychart.pdf
dt http://www.queensu.ca/iigr/conf/Arch/03/03-2/Hulchanski.pdf
dt http://www.rbc.com/canada/brochures/First_Home_English.pdf
dt http://www.rbc.com/economics/market/pdf/house.pdfdt http://www.rbc.com/newsroom/pdf/HA-1125-2011.pdf
dt http://www.rideforhome.com.au/files/pdf/HousingAffordability.pdf
dt http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/Publications/CA-OverviewMFH.pdf
dt http://www.shelter.org.au/archive/mr1008nationalaffordablehousing.pdf
dt http://www.toronto.ca/pdf/homeless_action.pdf
dt http://www.ucalgary.ca/cities/research_series/AffordableHousingInternationalExperiences.pdfdt http://www.umac.mo/fba/irer/papers/past/Vol7_pdf/1-30.pdf
dt http://www.uml.edu/centers/cic/Research/Tilly_Research/Housing-Tilly chapter-GRBT106-2299G-01-020-037.pdf
dt http://www.un.org/ga/econcrisissummit/docs/affordable_housing.pdf
dt http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/3680_5167_1.pdf
dt http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/6235_57828_K0950559_HSP_GC_22_4.pdf
dt http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/acp_english.pdf
dt http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/Hulchanski-Housing-Affd-pap.pdf
dt http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/home/debates/TDAffdHousing.pdf
dt http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/researchassociates/2005_Hulchanski_Conference.pdfdt http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/researchassociates/Hulchanski_Concept-H-Affd_H.pdf
dt http://www.va-rems.org/connecting_home_and_work.pdf
dt http://www.vchr.vt.edu/pdfreports/Richmond_Affordable Housing Demand.pdf
dt http://www.vibrantcalgary.com/uploads/pdfs/VCC_Cost_of_Living_Fact_Sheet_August_2009.pdfdt YFile – York MES student coordinates first heat registry program


An article in (The Economist 2010-11-25) noted that Canada had survived the global financial crisis better than many other developed countries: Canadian banks and public finances are sound, and the economy recovered quickly and strongly from recession.” However, in the same article it was noted that “Canada ranks 22nd-worst out of the 31 countries in the OECD, in terms of child poverty. More than 3m Canadians (or one in ten) are poor; and 610,000 of them are children. (The Economist 2010-11-25).” This timeline of selected events related to child poverty in Canada attempts to trace the social history and compile reliable references on the successes and failures, progress and stagnation on the path to the eradication of child poverty in Canada.

Reverse chronological order

2012 The Innocenti Report uses Statistics Canada ‘s Survey on Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID), 2009 for the 2012 report.

“Survey on Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) is a panel survey run by Statistics Canada. It is the country’s primary source for income data, and includes
information on family situation, education and demographic background. The survey is representative of all individuals living in Canada, excluding residents of
the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, as well as residents of institutions and persons living on Indian reserves. Overall, these exclusions amount to less
than 3% of Canada’s population. Report Card 10 uses data from the 2009 round of the SLID, with income poverty data referring to the year 2008. More information can be found at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca

2011

2011-11-24 Dream No Little Dreams Conference” co-hosted by the YWCA of Calgary and the Action to End Poverty in Alberta initiative, organized to build momentum for coordinated action to end poverty in Alberta held in Calgary, AB. This conference focuses on strategic action to create a provincial poverty reduction strategy in Alberta. See also (CBC. As child poverty spikes, conference aims for solutions.”

2011-11 Public Interest Alberta, the Alberta College of Social Workers, and the Edmonton Social Planning Council published their report entitled “In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta.” The publication contributes to the ongoingCampaign 2000 project.

2011-11-23. Armine Yalnizyan of Policy Alternatives published the report entitled “Twenty Years of Campaign 2000 – What Now?

YWCA. 2011-03. “Educated, Employed and Equal” the Economic Prosperity Case for National Child Care.”

2010-11 Canada survived the global financial crisis better than many other developed countries: Canadian banks and public finances are sound, and the economy recovered quickly and strongly from recession (The Economist 2010-11-25).”

2010

1990-2010 Canada has enjoyed long periods of steady growth (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2010-11 Canada ranks 22nd-worst out of the 31 countries in the OECD, in terms of child poverty. More than 3m Canadians (or one in ten) are poor; and 610,000 of them are children (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2010-11 Campaign 2000 reported that child poverty is now as bad as it was in 1990 (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2010-11 Food Banks Canada reported that 900,000 Canadians rely on food handouts, up by 9% on last year (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2010 Canada has about 300,000 homeless people (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2010 British Columbia, one of the richest Canadian provinces has one of the highest rates of child poverty (10.4%) after taxes on family income.

2010 Some Canadian provincial governments, including those of populous Ontario and Quebec, have launched poverty-reduction programmes; many include attempts to prod or help people back into work (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2010 Newfoundland financed poverty eradication programs through its royalties from oil and mining and successfully has cut its poverty rate in half (to 6.5%) (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2010 The only strategy acceptable to Stephen Harper’s Conservative administration to respond to poverty is “the sustained employment of Canadians”. (The Economist 2010-11-25).

2009

2009-12 The Subcommittee on Cities, The Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology published a report entitled “In From the Margins: a Call to Action on Poverty, Housing and Homelessness.” described as “an excellent roadmap for poverty reduction.” One of the 72 recommendations towards the eradication of child poverty was to increase the National Child Benefit to reach $5,000 by 2012 [Recommendation 34].

“Through a myriad of expert witnesses, site visits, roundtables and most importantly, testimony from those living in poverty and homelessness, we are saddened to report that far too many Canadians living in cities live below any measure of the poverty line; that too many people struggle to find and maintain affordable housing; and that an increasing number of Canadians are homeless. And despite the thoughtful efforts and many promising practices of governments‘, the private sector, and community organizations, that are helping many Canadians, the system that is intended to lift people out of poverty is substantially broken, often entraps people in poverty, and needs an overhaul . . . [We] believe that eradicating poverty and homelessness is not only the humane and decent priority of a civilized democracy, but absolutely essential to a productive and expanding economy benefitting from the strengths and abilities of all its people. (Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. 2009-12. “In From the Margins: a Call to Action on Poverty, Housing and Homelessness.” ).”

2009 According to the most recent data available in 2011, in Alberta there was a dramatic spike in child and family poverty. The “Alberta child poverty rate was 9.3% using LICO, compared to 12.8% using LIM. . . . (In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta.”

2009 The number of Alberta children living in poverty rose from 53,000 in 2008 to 73,000 in 2009 (CBC 2011-11-24 citing (In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta).

2009 “Disparities between families are growing. Between 1989 and 2009, after accounting for inflation, the yearly income of the poorest 10% of Alberta families with children increased by only $4,682. The yearly income of the richest 10% of families with children went
up $156,403. Average yearly family incomes went up $35,088 (In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta.”

2009 “In Alberta, the effectiveness of government income transfers in lifting children above the poverty line has increased over the years. In 1989, only about 25% of children were lifted above the poverty line. By 2009, this had increased to 44%. . . [However] In 2009, the Ontario government doubled the Ontario Child Benefit to $1100 per child, with a scheduled increase to $1310 by 2013.23 The Alberta government’s stronger financial position should allow it to introduce an Alberta Child Benefit at least equal to Ontario’s (In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta.”

2008

2008 When Canada entered the brutal recession there were c. 3 million Canadians living in poverty using the standard measure, Statistic Canada’s after-tax low-income cut-off (LICO) (Yalnizyan 2010-06-21).

2008 Witnesses at the senate inquiry on poverty, described challenges of raising children in poverty, and of increasing earnings in the labour market without affordable care for children that also contributes to their development and preparation for school (Yalnizian, Browne, Battle, Issue 4, 28 February 2008). The same witnesses emphasized that a small universal contribution to families with young children, like the current Universal Child Care benefit, was not sufficient to purchase childcare (GC 2008-06-08).

2007

2007 The child poverty rate in Canada was still 11.7%. Canada experienced a 50% real increase in the size of its economy from 1989 to 2007.

2007-06-14 Michèle Thibodeau-DeGuire, President and Executive Director, United Way of Greater Montreal, Evidence, SAST, 1st Session, 39th Parliament, 14 June 2007: “If people cannot have affordable housing, they will be in a horrible mess. Most of their money will go toward rent. They cannot feed themselves properly. How will they be able to help their children through school with the stress they live with?”

2007-11-26 Campaign 2000 released their national annual report card on poverty in Canada entitled “It Takes a Nation to Raise a Generation: 2007 Report Card on Child & Family Poverty in Canada.” Despite a growing economy, soaring dollar and low employment, 788,000 children (1/8 of Canadian children) live in poverty. Ontario remains the “child poverty capital,” with 345,000 children living in impoverished conditions.”

2007-11-26 Almost 30 per cent of Toronto families – approximately 93,000 households raising children – live in poverty, compared with 16 per cent in 1990. [The Mercer annual Cost of Living Survey of 143 major cities around the world measures the comparative cost of over 200 items in each location, including housing, transportation, food, clothing, household goods, and entertainment. In 2006, Toronto was ranked as the most expensive city in Canada, just slightly ahead of Vancouver.] Since 2000, the city has seen a net loss of jobs, many of them well-paying and unionized, while elsewhere job creation is on the rise. At the same time jobs have been replaced by temporary, part-time and contract work that offer no job security, benefits or eligibility for employment insurance. As a result, an alarming number of households are in deep financial trouble as seen by an increase in the number of evictions, family debt and bankruptcies since 2000, a year when the crippling recession of the 1990s had clearly eased in the rest of the country, the report says. From 1999 to 2006, landlord applications for eviction due to nonpayment of rent climbed from 19,795 to more than 25,000. Also, the number of people receiving credit counselling in Toronto has almost doubled in the past six years to an average of 4,534 per month. Not surprisingly, the number of moneylending outlets has increased almost eightfold since 1995 to more than 300, largely concentrated in the low-income neighbourhoods. United Way of Greater Toronto. 2007. Losing Ground: The Persistent Growth of Family Poverty in Canada’s Largest City, (Monsebraaten and Daly 2007-11-26 ).

2007-05-09 The former Ontario premier Bob Rae was one of four panellists at at the Toronto Star-sponsored forum on the growing income gap held at the St. Lawrence Centre and attended by 250. Rae argued that, “We now have to restore and renew our commitment to help people in difficult times [to invest] in affordable housing, child care and education” [. . .] Rae noted that Canada is the only government in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development that doesn’t have a national housing policy, and that’s reflected in the country’s poverty figures. Economist Yalnizyan, research director of the Toronto Social Planning Council remarked that “Income inequality is the second inconvenient truth in our society. [G]overnments need to act now – not only to tackle poverty, but to ensure everyone is benefiting from a healthy economy (Monsebraaten and Daly 2007).” Stop picking away at the edges of poverty, say forum speakers, and take a leaf from Ireland’s comprehensive plan.

2007-05 A study by economist Yalnizyan was released by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, showing a widening income gap in Ontario. “40 per cent of Ontario families have seen no gain in real income – and often a loss – compared with their predecessors 30 years ago. The richest 10 per cent, meanwhile, have seen their incomes soar. And even though Ontario parents are better educated, they spend more time working than the previous generation did, the study says (Monsebraaten and Daly 2007).”

2007-04 Ontario’s provincial budget “put poverty reduction on the agenda with a new Ontario child benefit for all children in low-income families – not just those on welfare. And it outlined a plan for raising the minimum wage to $10.25 by 2010, from $8 today (Monsebraaten and Daly 2007).”

2007-03 The Ontario Child Benefit, announced in the March 2007 Ontario Budget, pledged $2.1 billion over the first five years to help low-income families support their children (UWGT 2007:73).

2007 The federal government introduced a non-refundable child tax credit which provides income tax savings of up to $300 for children of all ages to tax-paying parents (Senate of Canada 2008-06-08).

2007 In 2007 Report Card on Child Well-being in Rich Countries: The most comprehensive assessment to date of the lives and well-being of children and adolescents in the economically advanced nations. builds and expands upon the analyses of Report Card No. 6 which considered relative income poverty affecting children and policies to mitigate it. Report Card 7 provides a pioneering, comprehensive picture of child well being through the consideration of six dimensions: material well-being, health and safety, education, family and peer relationships, subjective well-being, behaviours and lifestyles informed by the Convention on the rights of the child and relevant academic literature.” UNICEF. 2007. “Report Card on Child Well-being in Rich Countries.”

2007-11-12 Ligaya, Armina. 2007. “The debate over Canada’s poverty line.” CBC News On-line. http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/economy/poverty-line.html November 12. “[C]hild poverty numbers have not budged at all since 1989 when Canadian parliamentarians stood up and promised to do their best to eradicate it within a decade. Even today, 11.7 per cent of children under 18 are living below the low-income cut-off line.” There are now record numbers of tenants being evicted from their homes and a rising dependency on food banks (Shapcott cited in Ligaya 2007).

2007 “Jean Swanson, co-ordinator of the Carnegie Centre Action project in the heart of Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside, said restricting access to employment insurance and welfare only punishes the poor. The poverty activist said she has watched Canada’s homeless epidemic multiply what she says is 10-fold over the last decade (Ligaya 2007).”

2006

2006 Newfoundland announced a strategy to become the province with the lowest poverty rate by 2016.

2006 20,900 Canadian children used food banks, double the number in 1989.

2006 The Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB) was added, with payments of monthly instalments of $100 for every child under the age of 6 (regardless of parental income) (Senate of Canada 2008-06-08).

2006 The net worth of the lowest quintile fell to a negative net worth from zero while national net worth grew 2.8% in the last quarter of 2006. Less than 10% of families who hold at least 53% of total Cdn. net worth ($4.8 trillion) (Drummond and Tulk, 2006).

2006-11-24 CBC news summarized details from the Campaign 2000 (2006) National Annual Report on Child Poverty with the headlines “Aboriginal children are poorest in country: report: B.C. and Newfoundland have highest rates; Alberta and P.E.I. have lowest rates.” November 24, 2006. One aboriginal child in eight is disabled, double the rate of all children in Canada; Among First Nations children, 43 per cent lack basic dental care; Overcrowding among First Nations families is double the rate of that for all Canadian families; Mould contaminates almost half of all First Nations households; Almost half of aboriginal children under 15 years old residing in urban areas live with a single parent; Close to 100 First Nations communities must boil their water; Of all off-reserve aboriginal children, 40 per cent live in poverty.

2005

1999-2005 Considerable wealth was accumulated in Canada between 1999 and 2005. In 2005 net worth increased by 41.7% to nearly $1.5 trillion (US?). The most recent Statistics Canada report revealed today that the Canadian national net worth reached $4.8 trillion by the end of the third quarter. While in terms of an economist’s algorithm this translates into an average of $146,700 per person. In reality only the a tiny number of Canadian households benefited. “The gain in net worth resulted from an increase in national wealth (economy-wide non-financial assets) as well as a sharp drop in net foreign debt. National net worth grew 2.8% in the third quarter, the largest increase in more than two years (Statistics Canada 2006)”.

2005 According to Stats Canada the disparity between the top income-earning category and the lowest was $105,400 (Shapcott cited in Ligaya 2007). Statistics Canada income figures showed 788,000 children were living in poverty in 2005, a rate of 11.7 per cent.

2005 41 per cent of all low-income children lived in families in Canada where at least one parent had a full-time job (Campion-Smith 2007).

2004

2004 Childhood  poverty in the United States is among the highest in the developed world (Rifkin ED 2004: x).”

2004 Since 2004, the 25 countries of the European Union (EU) have been developing a new statistical data source, known as Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). EU-SILC aims to become the reference source of comparative statistics on income distribution and living conditions within the EU. A primary purpose of EU-SILC is to monitor the common indicators (the so-called Laeken Indicators) by which the EU has agreed to measure its progress towards reducing poverty and social exclusion. EU-SILC therefore replaces the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) which was the main source of such data from 1994 until 2001 (for the then 15 Member States of the EU). Designed to fill some of the acknowledged gaps and weaknesses of the ECHP, EU-SILC collects every year comparable and up-to-date cross-sectional data on income, poverty, social exclusion and other aspects of living conditions – as well as longitudinal data on income and on a limited set of non-monetary indicators of social exclusion. The first EU-SILC data for all 25 Member States of the current EU, plus Norway and Iceland, should be available by the end of 2006. The first 4-year longitudinal data on ‘those at-persistent-risk-of-poverty’ will be available by the beginning of 2010. In addition to populating these core indicators, each round of EU-SILC also gathers data on one particular theme – beginning in 2005 with data on the intergenerational transmission of poverty.

2002

2002 Quebec introduced anti-poverty legislation. The “Province of Quebec and Ireland have tackled poverty head on, with impressive results that show poverty reduction can be achieved against planned goals (UWGT 2007:73).”

2002 Of all the world’s wealthy nations it was only in the United States that the majority (58%) claimed that cared more about personal freedom to pursue goals without government interference than play an active role in society so as to guarantee that nobody is in need? (Rifkin ED 2004:379) .”

2001

2001 Over 653,000 Canadians were earning wages that classified them as “working poor” (and 1.5 million people were directly affected, one third of them children under the age of 18) (Senate of Canada 2008-06-08).

2001-05 The National Council on Welfare using the LICO claimed that 5 million Canadians are living in poverty.

2000s

2000-12 Laurel Rothman, the National Coordinator of Campaign 2000 wrote a Letter to the Editor entitled “Richer, poorer” to the National Post in response to their editorial dismissing Campaign 2000′s annual report card (Rothman 2000).

2000-12-06 A letter entitled “No surplus for kids” by Pedro Barata, the Ontario Coordinator of Campaign 2000, was published in the Toronto Star. Barata asked, “Why is it that Ontario was one of only two provinces where since 1996 poor families fell deeper below the poverty line?” or, “Why does Ontario have the highest monthly fees for child care in Canada?”

2000-06-01 Innocenti Report Card. Issue No. 1. The first Innocenti Report Card presents the most comprehensive analysis to date of child poverty in the nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). “Whether measured by relative or absolute poverty, the top six places in the child poverty league are occupied by the same six nations – all of which combine a high degree of economic development with a reasonable degree of equity” In the league table of relative child poverty, the bottom seven places are occupied by the Canada (15.5%), Ireland (16.8%), Turkey, United Kingdom, Italy, the United States (22.4%), and Mexico (26.2%). In the league table of absolute child poverty, the bottom four places are occupied by Spain, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.” “The countries with the lowest child poverty rates allocate the highest proportions of GNP to social expenditures (Figure 8). Differences in tax and social expenditure policies mean that some nations reduce ‘market child poverty’ by as much as 20 percentage points and others by as little as 5 percentage points (Figure 9).”

2000-12-05 The editorial in the Toronto Star dealt with child poverty in Canada.

2000-11-24 The National Post published an editorial dismissing Campaign 2000′s Annual National Report Card on Child Poverty in Canada (Rothman 2000).

2000 Almost 1 in 5 children still living in poverty in Ontario.

2000 “In the absence of an official poverty line in Canada, Campaign 2000 ascribes to the position held by most Canadian social policy organizations studying the issue and by UNICEF. UNICEF uses a relative measure of poverty to describe those whose material, cultural and social resources are so limited as to exclude them from the minimum acceptable way of life where they live (Rothman 2000).”

2000 Table 1. shows the percentage of children living in ‘relative’ poverty, defined as households with income below 50 per cent of the national median. Using this standard of relative poverty countries at the bottom of the list included Canada (15.5%), Ireland (16.8%), Turkey, UK, Italy, USA (22.4), Mexico (26.2%), . Innocenti Report Card. Issue No. 1. (UNICEF 2000)

1990s

1990s “The recession of the 1990s generated a much bigger escalation of poverty [than the 1980s], both in magnitude and duration, because a protracted period of job loss ran into the scaling back of unemployment insurance and social assistance by federal and provincial governments [tough-love approaches] (Yalnizyan 2010-06-21).”

1990s “The growth in the number of low-income families in the City of Toronto in the 1990s was alarming, soaring from 41,670 at the start of the 1990s to 84,750 by the decade’s end. The factors that contributed to this change are well known – the deep recession in the early 1990s, corporate downsizing, the rise in precarious employment, decreased access to Employment Insurance, reduced welfare payments, and the barriers that skilled immigrants faced finding work for which they were qualified (UWGT 2007:40).”

1998 The National Child Benefit Supplement was added to the CCTB to provide increased benefits to all low-income families including those without taxable income.

1997 Senator Ermine Cohen wrote a report on child poverty in Canada, entitled “Sounding the Alarm: Poverty in Canada.”8 “It was intended to ―revisit the commitments made in the 1971 Croll Report and to evaluate progress a quarter-century later. Her report provided useful snapshots of poverty experienced by those who were working and those who were not, among over-represented groups including Aboriginal peoples, people with disabilities, youth and seniors. She considered the role of the labour market, our international obligations, and more themes that emerged again in our study. Harshly critical of our ―tax and transfer‖ system, the report called for changes, as did the Croll report before it. Too few have been implemented SSCSAST 2009-12. p. 24).”

1996 The number of Canadians living under the low-income cut-off after taxes was 11.6 per cent in 1980, according to Statistics Canada, far lower than the 1996 peak of 15.7 per cent (Yalnizyan cited in Ligaya 2007).

1995-2005 The national Irish government set firm targets, created timetables and reported annually so the public could easily see progress being made against poverty. In this way they reduced poverty from 15 per cent to 6.8 per cent (Yalnizyan in Monsebraaten and Daly 2007).

1995 The World Summit for Social Development was held in Copenhagen. The Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action was adopted. The Copenhagen stressed the urgent need for countries to deal with social problems such as poverty, unemployment and social exclusion (Symonides 1998). This was the largest gathering ever of world leaders. The declarations, programmes included a pledge to put people at the centre of development, to conquer poverty, to ensure full employment, to foster social integration (Development 1995).

1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was held in Rio de Janeiro. “At this conference it was recognized that extreme poverty and social exclusion of vulnerable groups persisted and inequalities had become increasingly dramatic in spite of economic development. At this conference the term sustainable development referred to “economic development, social development and environmental protection as interdependent and mutually reinforcing components (Symonides 1998:3).”

1991 Canada experienced a transformational recession for the labour market and began emerging from that only in 1997 (Yalnizyan cited in Ligaya 2007).

1980s

1989-11-24 The child poverty rate in Canada was 11.7%. On November 24, 1989, the House of Commons unanimously passed a resolution to seek to achieve “the goal of eliminating poverty among Canadian children by the year 2000 (Campaign 2000 ).”

1989 The Canadian Parliament unanimously supported a resolution to eliminate child poverty by 2000.

1988 The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, located in Florence, Italy, was established in 1988 to strengthen the research capability of the United Nations Children’s Fund and to amplify its voice as an advocate for children worldwide.

1980s and 1990s Single mothers, disabled people, aboriginal Canadians and immigrants suffered cuts in welfare payments (which are too meagre to keep someone above the country’s de facto poverty line) when governments, both federal and provincial, cut public spending to restore fiscal health (The Economist 2010-11-25).

1981-82 Canada experienced a transformational recession for the labour market and it took the country about eight years to climb out of the rut (Yalnizyan cited in Ligaya 2007).

1980 The number of Canadians living under the low-income cut-off after taxes was 11.6 per cent in 1980, according to Statistics Canada, far lower than the 1996 peak of 15.7 per cent (Yalnizyan cited in Ligaya 2007). “In 1980, the disparity between the top income-earning category and the lowest was $83,000, according to Statistics Canada. By 2005, that gap had reached $105,400 (Shapcott cited in Ligaya 2007).”

1970s

1971Senator David Arnold Croll, PC, QC published his influential “Report of the Special Senate Committee on Poverty” (Croll Report) which began with the words “the poor do not choose poverty. It is at once their affliction and our national shame. The children of the poor (and there are many) are the most helpless victims of all, and find even less hope in a society where welfare systems from the very beginning destroys their chances of a better life.” The report moved the Trudeau government to triple family allowances in 1973 and institute the Child Tax Credit in 1978. Aside from his work on poverty, he was also responsible for Senate reports on aging. In 1990 in recognition of his contributions, he was sworn into the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada, an honour usually given only to federal cabinet ministers.

1950s

1950 [In 2000] despite a doubling and redoubling of national incomes in most nations since 1950, a significant percentage of their children are still living in families so materially poor that normal health and growth are at risk. And as the tables show, a far larger proportion remain in the twilight world of relative poverty; their physical needs may be minimally catered for, but they are painfully excluded from the activities and advantages that are considered normal by their peers (UNICEF. 2001. Innocenti Report Card. Issue No. 1.).”

Note: In 2011 Canada still does not have an official poverty line although most data on poverty is presented using the uniquely Canadian Low Income Cut-off (LICO) After-Tax Measure, which is based on a complex calculation.1. The major weakness of LICO as a measurement tool is partly that since 1992, LICO has only been updated for inflation and not other changes in the expenditure pattern of Canadian families. Statistics Canada has no plans to update LICO (In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta. Campaign 2000 is considering transitioning from LICO to the Low Income Measure (LIM) (After-Tax) starting in 2012. LIM, is based on 50% of median family income, is a more easily understood measure. LIM is updated every year. LIM is used internationally while LICO is only used in Canada. As shown on Chart 1, in their report, “in the 1990s LICO poverty rates were higher than LIM rates. In the 2000s LICO rates have been consistently lower. In 2009, the Alberta child poverty rate was 9.3% using LICO, compared to 12.8% using LIM (In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta.”

Bibliography and Webliography

Battle, Ken. 2008-01. “A Bigger and Better Child Benefit: A $5,000 Canada Child Tax Benefit.” Caledon Institute. Ottawa, ON p.3.

The Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. 2009-12. “In From the Margins: a Call to Action on Poverty, Housing and Homelessness.” Subcommittee on Cities. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada.

The Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. 2008-06. “Poverty, Housing and Homelessness: Issues and Options.” Subcommittee on Cities. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada.

Public Interest Alberta, the Alberta College of Social Workers, and the Edmonton Social Planning Council. 2011-11. “In This Together: Ending Poverty in Alberta.” Edmonton, AB. ISBN 978-0-921417-60-6.

Atkinson, A. B. Macroeconomics and the Social Dimension.

Barata, Pedro. 2000-12-06. “No surplus for kids.” Letter of the Day. Toronto Star.

Bradshaw, J. and Mayhew, E. (eds.) 2005. The well-being of children in the UK, Save the Children. London.

Campaign 2000. 2006. “Oh Canada! Too Many Children in Poverty for Too Long.”

Campaign 2000. 2007. “It Takes a Nation to Raise a Generation: 2007 Report Card on Child & Family Poverty in Canada.”

Campion-Smith, Bruce. 2007. “Ontario leads in child poverty.” Feature on Poverty. Toronto Star. November 26.

CBC. 2006. “Aboriginal children are poorest in country: report: B.C. and Newfoundland have highest rates; Alberta and P.E.I. have lowest rates.” November 24, 2006.

CBC. 2007. “Child poverty rates unchanged in nearly 2 decades: report.” November 26.

CBC. 2011-11-24. “As child poverty spikes, conference aims for solutions.”

Drummond, Don & Tulk, David (2006) Lifestyles of the Rich and Unequal: an Investigation into Wealth Inequality in Canada. TD Bank Financial Group.

The Economist. 2010-11. “The persistence of poverty amid plenty.” The Economist.

Ligaya, Armina. 2007. “The debate over Canada’s poverty line.” CBC News On-line. November 12.

Marlier, E.; Atkinson, A.B.; Cantillon, B.; Nolan,B. 2006. The EU and social inclusion: Facing the challenges. Policy Press: Bristol.

Mcquaig, Linda. 1995. Shooting the Hippo: Death by Deficit and Other Canadian Myths. Toronto, Viking.

Mcquaig, Linda. 1998. The Cult of Impotence: Selling the Myth of Powerlessness in the Global Economy. Toronto, Penguin Books.

McMahon. Fred. 2000. “The true measure of poverty.” Op-Ed. Peterborough Examiner on ?

Monsebraaten, Laurie; Daly, Rita. 2007. “In search of a poverty strategy.” Toronto Star. May 09.

Monsebraaten, Laurie; Daly, Rita. 2007. “Toronto families slip into poverty.” Toronto Star. November 26.

Richards, John. Reducing Poverty: What has worked, and what should come next.

Rifkin, Jeremy P. 2004. The European Dream: How Europe’s Vision of the Future is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream. Jeremy P. Tarcher, ISBN 1-58542-345-9

Rothman, Laurel. 2000. “Richer, poorer.” Letter to the Editor. National Post. Toronto. December.

Rothman, Laurel; Shillington, Richard. 2000. “A place for every child: building an inclusive society.” Peterborough Examiner. December 7.

Statistics Canada. 2006. “National balance sheet accounts: Third Quarter”. Press Release. Ottawa, ON. December 15, 2006.

UNICEF. 2001. Innocenti Report Card. Issue No. 1.

UNICEF. 2007. “Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries: The most comprehensive assessment to date of the lives and well-being of children and adolescents in the economically advanced nations.” Innocenti Report Card 7, 2007. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence.

United Way of Greater Toronto. 2007. Losing Ground: The Persistent Growth of Family Poverty in Canada’s Largest City.

Yalnizyan, Armine. 2010. “Canada’s Poverty Hole: New income data suggests troubling poverty trends are unfolding in Canada.” National Office. June 21, 2010

YWCA. 2011-03. “Educated, Employed and Equal” the Economic Prosperity Case for National Child Care.”


The ease and relative impersonality of new technologies and new media “a mechanism of world inter-communication … embracing the whole planet, freed from national hindrances and restrictions, and functioning with marvellous swiftness and perfect regularity” requires writers to have a heightened level of self-discipline and consideration of content, volume, style, tact, wisdom and timeliness (Birkland 1998). With the speed of the mouse-click it easy to lose sight of moderation and courtesy.

The Economist began a series of Oxford-style debates[1] on October 16, 2007 using new technologies and new media with traditional academic skills of logic, rhetoric and courtesy to seek collective wisdom.

The first series of debates (Oct 16th 2007 – Jan 24th 2008) were on education and connected issues of public responsibility, immigration, and the digital divide. Technology in education; University recruiting; Social networking

The motion that,

“The continuing introduction of new technologies and new media adds little to the quality of most education.”

was rejected with a vote result of: Proposition: 44% Opposition: 56%.

“We have supplied our own evidence for the value of new technology in education. Without new technology this debate would never have happened. But we have also shown the value of the traditional academic skills of logic, rhetoric and courtesy. All of these were much in evidence, and gave our debate its quality. On the substance of the question: Sir John Daniel and his supporters argued splendidly for the limitations of technology, and its frequent disappointments in practice. But they were handicapped from the start by a willingness to agree that technology could and should be doing much more to improve education, if only it were to be integrated imaginatively enough into the curriculum and if institutions and teaching methods were reformed radically enough to make best use of it. This undertow of possibility communicated itself to undecided voters, and produced an outcome which I suspect even the losers might regard as fair, amounting as it does to a very heavily qualified vote of confidence in technology. Let me thank again our speakers, who did a superb job of provoking and guiding us; and our featured guests, whose interventions kept the discussion fresh. I reiterate my admiration for Dr Kozma’s closing statement, in which, it seemed to me, he engaged himself much more personally in the argument and was correspondingly more persuasive. It was at the point that his clear margin of victory started to emerge. Most of all let me thank our commenters, whose collective wisdom and experience has proved a formidable resource. This officially brings the first Economist debate to a close and I look forward to welcoming you to our next debate on Dec 10th. (Robert Cottrell [2], Debate Moderator. Deputy Editor).

Notes

1. “Rules of the game: Traditional Oxford-style debate: Oxford-style debate is most famously practised by the Oxford Union, the debating society of Oxford University. The Oxford Union’s invigorating debating chamber has yielded generations of British parliamentarians, lawyers, journalists and other accomplished advocates. The Oxford style of debate is characterised by its formality and structure. Debates are hosted by a moderator and take place between two teams, the “proposition” and the “opposition”. The proposition proposes a resolution for the debate ‘with constructive arguments and the use of supporting material.’ The opposition then opposes the resolution by rebutting these arguments and bringing its own supporting material to bear. Traditionally, each side has three opportunities to advance its cause: through an opening speaker, a second speaker and a summator (The Economist Oxford-Style Debates: How it Works).”

2. “The Economist selects speakers on the basis of their professional accomplishments, intellectual acuity and knowledge of the topic at issue. A balanced perspective is required from all speakers; Oxford-style debate can only succeed when both the proposition and the opposition listen to their opponents’ arguments with respect and respond with well-informed dissent. Guest participants are chosen for their expertise and real-world experience. Their role in the debate is not to take sides, but to deepen the floor’s understanding of the issues surrounding the topic up for debate (The Economist Oxford-Style Debates: How it Works).”

Webliography and Bibliography

Birkland, Stephen. 1998-08-31. “Internet, the World Wide Web, and Electronic Discussion Lists: A perspective from the Baha’i Writings by Bahá’u’lláh, Abdu’l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice.”


Circumtomato

Economist Milton Friedman, propagated 18th century values in the Post-WWII global economy. Like Adam Smith he preached the gospel of minimal government, laissez-faire. The triad, Hayek’s The Road to Serfdom (1944), Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged (1957), and Milton Friedman’s Capitalism and Freedom (1962) pit economic efficiency against social justice.

“It is standard doctrine, at least among American economists and in much of the business community, that firms should maximize the stock market value (Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2007. “What is the Role of the State?” in Escaping the Resource Curse. supra note 154, at 3, 28-29).” Under U.S. corporate law, for example, a corporation’s board of directors must make decisions that reflect the profit motivations of shareholders or risk liability for a breach of fiduciary duty.” (The Yale Journal of International Law. Vol.36:167:184).


A Circumtomato Globe: Devouring the Earth, Extremes of Wealth and Poverty

I compiled this digitized collage, inspired by Deborah Barndt’s Tangled Routes: Women, Work and Globalization on the Tomato Trail on November 16, 2006. I used a Google earth generated globe to situate as a kind of circumtomato globe. I developed the concept of John Elkington’s Cannibals with Forks for the image of a world being devoured by those who choose to make decisions based on only one bottom line.


In its Oxford style debate 2.0 on sustainability and corporate responsibility, The Economist set forth the proposition for debate, “Without outside pressure, corporations will not take meaningful action on sustainability.” The final vote count was: Pro 73% / Con 27%.


Henry C K Liu, chairman of the New York-based Liu Investment Group wrote this in his article (2003) about Hong Kong’s benign colonialism that seduced Milton Friedman.

Love is blind and infatuation disguises faults as virtues. As Rudyard Kipling fell in love with the pageantry of colonialism and saw racial exploitation as the “White Man’s Burden”, Milton Friedman, Nobel economist, fell in love with colonial Hong Kong, seduced by the wine-and-dine hospitality of its colonial masters and elite compradores. Friedman mistook Hong Kong’s colonial economic system as a free market, despite Hong Kong’s highly orchestrated colonial command economy.

The violence of extremes of wealth and poverty is the moral dilemma of the 21st century, not the acquisition of wealth by individuals, corporations and nation-states. The use of that wealth to convince civil society through mass media of a fair redistribution of wealth is unconscionable. In his book entitled The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Times, Harvard Economist, Jeffrey D. Sachs (2005) reveals the gaping chasm between the real and the perceptions of the real in terms of the ways in which the world’s wealthiest share their wealth with the world’s most vulnerable, at-risk populations. Based on OECD statistics and his own research Sachs claims that the extremes of poverty could be overcome in 25 years if wealthy nations devoted just 0.7% of their GNP (instead of the 0.33% currently provided) official development assistance (ODA) in developing countries. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) reported that Canada’s official development assistance (ODA) was 0.28% of gross national income (GNI) up from an all time low of 0.22% in 2001. In 2005 the world’s most powerful, wealth nation, the United States devoted just 0.22% of its GNP to foreign aid.

Public perceptions reflect support for higher levels of aid. When asked what percentage of the federal budget they think goes to foreign aid, Americans’ median estimate is 25% of the budget, more than 25 times the actual level. Only 2% of Americans give a correct estimate of 1% of the budget or less. When asked how much of the budget should go to foreign aid, the median response is 10%. Only 13% of Americans believe that the percentage should be 1% or less. Over 60% of Americans believe that contributing 0.7% of national income to meet the Millennium Development Goals is the right thing to do (Sachs 2005).

In an article published in The Economist in 2005 entitled “The Biggest Contract” (in reference to Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s concept of social contract), Ian Davis challenged Anglo-Saxon corporate management to revisit, redefine, re-articulate and reinforce with greater subtlety their relationship with society as an implicit social contract that acknowledges obligations, opportunities and mutual advantage for both sides.” Corporate management needs to recast this debate and recapture the intellectual and moral high ground from their critics.” Davis argued that like the political leaders in Rousseau’s 18th century, corporate management in the 21st century will lose legitimacy if they refuse to serve the public good. Davis rejects the nonproductive binary oppositional environment of public debate on economic efficiency vs social justice. The strongly held belief in Anglo-Saxon economies [1] that the “business of business is business” (to create shareholder value) is as outworn, ideology-based and caricature-driven as is the extreme version of Corporate Social Responsibility” (CSR).

Davis argued that an informed, educated and engaged [2] CEOs and upper-level management should map-out long term options and responses to relevant, evolving, overarching, broad, carefully researched social pressures and issues as an implicit and integral (not merely peripheral) part of corporate strategy rather than depending exclusively on lower-level public-relations tacticians operating with a knee-jerk, defensive, narrow, reactionary, rebuttal stance to individual, local and immediate (at times, ill-defined) laws, (political, ideological, etc) tensions and (environmental, sustainability, NGO) concerns. “Large companies need to build social issues into strategy in a way which reflects their actual business importance.” The CEOs should blend and harmonize their supporting efforts, such as trade regimes, with sophisticated, sensitive and successful approaches to risk management, social and economic development issues, access to social services particularly for the most vulnerable populations and resolutions of regional geopolitical conflicts. See The Economist premium content.

“Since 2006 investors have flocked to sign the United Nations Principles for Responsible Investment (UNPRI) but now find themselves in the firing line for ‘greenwashing’, as many fail to fulfill their promise to fully integrate and report progress on environmental, social and governance factors. Most Australia-based UNPRI signatory super funds contacted by Ethical Investor admit there is still much work to be done to fully integrate Environmental, Social Governance (ESG) into its investment analysis and decision-making (Wagg and Taylor 2009-05-31).”

Notes

1. The Anglo-Saxon shareholder-value model has increasingly taken on global significance.

2. Davis argued that executive managers must introduce explicit processes which include the development of resources such as broad metrics, summaries and analysis of relevant social issues in order to systematically “educate and engage their boards of directors.

For more on this topic see also papergirls.wordpress.com

Selected Bibliography

Wagg, Oliver; Taylor, Nicholas. 2009-05-31. “UNPRI: Greenwash or Green Fix? Ethical Investor.

Barndt, Deborah (2001) Tangled Routes: Women, Work and Globalization on the Tomato Trail, Aurora, ON, Garamond Press.

Davis, Ian. 2005. “The biggest contract: By building social issues into strategy, big business can recast the debate about its role, argues Ian Davis.” The Economist. May 28.

Elkington, John (1997) Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business, New Society Publishers, Limited.

Elkington, John (2003) Chrysalis Economy: How Citizen CEOs and Corporations Can Fuse Values and Value Creation, Wiley, John and Sons, Incorporated.

Friedman, Milton. 1970. “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits”, The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970. Copyright @ 1970 by The New York Times Company.

Liu, Henry C. K., 2003, “China: a Case of Self-Delusion, from colonialism to confusion,” Asia Times, May 14, 2003.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2005. “Facts on International Aid.” The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Times.

Sachs, Jeffrey D. “The Strategic Significance of Global Inequality.”

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