Aboriginal rights in Canada: Berger noted, “In recent years, Canadian ideas about Aboriginal peoples have undergone a sea change. Once thought to be peoples on the margins of the nation’s history and irrelevant to present-day concerns, they are now seen as having a right to fashion a future of their own. In Canada we have a well-developed theory of Aboriginal rights, based on the fact that at the time of contact Aboriginal peoples were self-governing, organized political communities, using and occupying the land (Lamer 1996).” “In my view, the doctrine of aboriginal rights exists … because of one simple fact: when Europeans arrived in North America, aboriginal peoples were already here, living in communities on the land, and participating in distinctive cultures, as they had done for centuries. It is this fact, and this fact above all others, which separates aboriginal peoples from all other minority groups in Canadian society and which mandates their special legal, and now constitutional, status (Lamer 1996).”
Apology: From a political philosophy viewpoint, an apology is an ethical act where in the perpetrator admits responsibility for a heinous act, transfers shame from the victim to the perpetrator, restores the victim’s dignity, demonstrates the perpetrator’s commitment to a renewed ethical relationship of respect between the self and other which restores social harmony and reflects social justice. An apology from a psychological point of view, one that will provide the victim with closure and restored dignity, is timely, sincere and appropriate. In the adversarial legal system, an apology is an admission of guilt. This pits the moral imperative of the victims’ right to closure and healing against the legal imperative, the perpetrator’s right to self-defense. In spite of the dramatic findings of the RCAP, the federal government citing the legal imperative, hesitated to apologize for wrongdoings to protect the accused offenders’ rights to be presumed innocent (Alter 1999:22).
Beijing Conference: The 1995 Beijing Conference declared its determination “to advance the goals of equality, development and peace for all women everywhere in the interest of all humanity, acknowledging the voices of all women everywhere and taking note of the diversity of women and their roles and circumstances, honouring the women who paved the way and inspired by the hope present in the world’s youth, recognize that the status of women has advanced in some important respects in the past decade but that progress has been uneven, inequalities between women and men have persisted and major obstacles remain, with serious consequences for the well being of all people (UNDAW 1995).”
Blackboxing: An expression from the sociology of science that refers to the way scientific and technical work is made invisible by its own success. When a machine runs efficiently, when a matter of fact is settled, one need focus only on its inputs and outputs and not on its internal complexity. Thus, paradoxically, the more science and technology succeed, the more opaque and obscure they become (Latour 1999:304).
Bretton Woods: At the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 certain nations agreed to link a common gold standard to the United States currency. An examination of the record of the Bretton Woods institutions in 2000 revealed that the majority of the World Bank’s non-grant lending was concentrated in eleven countries with the best credit ratings while the poorest countries of the world receiving the least. The World Bank’s mandate was to end global poverty (Bello 2000).
Central Park Thesis: Rhoda Howard described Central Park as the symbol of excessive protection of individual human rights at the expense of community rights (Howard 1995:24).
Chicago School of Economics: Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman, led the Chicago School of monetary economics. Friedman argued that governments that impose taxes, redistributing capital to respond to social inequalities are coercive. He insists that the free market creates an environment of cooperation without coercion (Friedman 2000). Freidman, George Stigler, Frank Knight, and Aaron Director from the University of Chicago were invited by Hayek to Switzerland in a 1 Swiss-funded project to promote ideas in Hayek’s Road to Serfdom. Their economic policies promised the road to freedom. They situated themselves as in opposition to the general intellectual current moving towards socialism in 1947 which they narrowly defined as against political and economic freedom.
City of God: Augustine of Hippo, North Africa, whose writings were foundational to western concepts of Christianity. He was educated in the Greek and Roman classics, Homer and Virgil before converting to Christianity. He wrote The City of God (410) in defense of the Christians who were persecuted by Romans who believed they were responsible for the sacking of Rome by Alaric and the Vandals. Augustine described two cities as earthly and divine. For it desires earthly peace for the sake of enjoying earthly goods, and it makes war in order to attain to this peace (Augustine 410). The earthly city [state] by its nature is in a constant state of litigations, wars, quarrels and short-term victories. Even in moments of pride enjoyed by the triumphant conqueror, the subjugated, defeated enemy will rise up again. Each city state makes war because it desires earthly peace in order to enjoy earthly goods. Peace is purchased by war. A desirable peace is a result of a victor whose cause was more just cause. But the second city is the City of God where all will find eternal victory and peace.
Civilizational rights: Falks suggested an “alternative to the false universalism of globalization in the form of an intercivilizational world order that combines the ecological and biological conditions of unity with the civilizational realities of difference and self-definition (Falk 2000b:161). This radical shift recognizes the emergence of civilizational identities which challenges the dominant statist identities (2000b:147).
Classical liberal economics: Classical liberal economists emphasize free trade, minimalist government, a Night Watchmen concept that places emphasis on protecting individual private wealth, economic efficiency and wealth maximization (GNP growth) over community rights to social justice. Classical liberal economists claim that economics is a science that explains how individuals interact and how individuals use limited resources to satisfy their different objectives and ends. Adam Smith’s (1776) The Wealth of Nations as the foundational text. See also The Chicago School of Economics, Milton Friedman.
Clear and present danger: American Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes established the clear and present danger test according to which freedom of expression could legitimately be curtailed when it posed an unmistakable and immediate danger to others. Holmes used the example of the right of an individual to yell, “Fire!” in a crowded theatre (Brooks 2000:265).
CNN effect: refers to a shift in structure of mass communication by which media is centrally controlled and produced using a variety of media, print, video, audio and the internet. Information communicated through these centralized are selectively available creating a grassroots digital divide (Brysk 2002:246).
CNN factor: Politically conditioned moral advocacy and intervention placates populations (CNN factor), protects strategic goals, maintains status-quo, favours humanist secular states over religious states. It is moral incoherence for mediating nations to treat tyrannical, oppressive leaders as legitimate. Narrow realist views strategize on self-serving political agendas which may conflict with morality and human rights, blatant examples include German participation in the 1936 Olympic Games and Swiss banks accepting deposits of gold from Nazis. Political and economic realism accepts the victor’s justice and distrusts a concept of establishment of an international court.
Colonialization of popular imagination: There is an inherent link between ‘media and state power — between the colonization of the popular imagination and the allocation of social resources through public policy and market relations (Hackett and Zhao 1998:5).’
Commodification: There is a potential for globalization through commodification when socially responsible investment and green marketing harness commodification to improve social conditions (Brysk 2002:244).
Communication: like its associated base in civil society, has been granted a privileged status by scholars as both a hallmark of globalization and a promoter of human rights. Media diffusion and electronic networking have contributed to campaigns against World Bank projects, appeals by indigenous peoples and the disadvantaged. Local activists use communication effectively to challenge expertise, to unsettle the legitimacy of state and global institutions (Brysk 2002:245).
Connection: Human rights connectedness refers to a globalizing effect that strengthens human rights in domestic and international affairs. Connectedness asserts greater accountability as victims confront perpetrators and international organizations, boycotting consumers, citizen activists and protestors communicate freely (Brysk 2002:244).
Contractarian reasoning: the philosopher John Rawls argued that social contracts should be designed using a veil of ignorance, a hypothetical state in which negotiators assume ignorance of each other’s endowments as opposed to negotiating a social contract based on endowments that people actually have.
Core/periphery models: There are two conflicting theories of the core/periphery model. Conventional economics interpret the core/periphery model as one of mutuality where the dominant economic force with its competitive marketplace will eventually lead the periphery to increased wealth and elimination of inequality. See also Frank’s 1969 adaptation of Dependency Theory.
Cosmopolitanism: Refers to the diffusion of power and responsibility across borders through individuals, transnational entities and international nongovernmental organizations that foster accountability and enforcement of human rights standards. Cosmopolitanism creates a new global opportunity for human rights but the cosmopolitan factor can exacerbate abuses by the World Bank, the market and even civil society (Brysk 2002:244).
Cosmopolitical philosophy: Derrida cautioned that the stakes have never been as serious to critically re-examine neocolonial institutions operational today which emerged from an eighteenth century project that was predicted and prescribed by Kant, and continues to operate under a dialectic of appropriation and alienation. Derrida’s call for the right to philosophy-from-the-cosmopolitical-point-of-view resonates with the northern opportunity to fully investigate the Bathurst Mandate by thereby expanding the philosophical project through non-European languages and cultures. Derrida reminds us that philosophy does not rely on one exclusive memory (Derrida 1996).
Critical traditionalism: Nandy offers a postcolonial postdevelopment model which is open to dialogue with a critical modernism. Nandy argues that the beliefs and ideals of the disadvantaged are more likely to lead to freedom, compassion and justice than the ideas generated by the “winners of the world.” Nandy’s critical traditionalism investigates the potential resources in traditional cultures to bring about social and political transformation. This must include privileging the voices of the marginalized (Nandy 1987; Peet and Hartwick 1999:162).
Cultural citizenship: A shift in the practice and theory of belonging to communities which marks the transition from modern to postmodern (Kymlicka1995; Pakulski 1997 cited in (White and Donoghue)
Dependency Theory: Rich, industrial core countries, regions and/or cities become wealthier by unilaterally acquiring the natural resources of periphery regions leaving them underdeveloped and impoverished (Frank 1969; Friedmann 1966). Bone applied this model to the six regions of Canada (Bone 2000:19). See also core/periphery model. This theory has been criticized by **** (Peet and Hartwick 1999).
Democratic state: The Soviet Union defined a democratic State as one in which the ‘obligation of the minority to submit to the majority of the people’ (UN Doc E/CN.4/SR.51 (1948)).
Democracy: In 1948 a democratic society is one which genuinely represents the will of the people and respects the human rights proclaimed in the Universal Declaration (Svensson-McCarthy 1998:101).
Development: is a doctrine of modernity which engages humanity on a project of progress destined to improve the world through modern advances in science, technology, democracy, values, ethics and social organization. Development has been interpreted by classical economists as resource development by an entrepreneurial elite leading to more consumption for all. Economic development through globalization has lifted millions from poverty (Falk 2000c:240) billions remain impoverished and the inequalities chasm deepens. Nations are more assertive in claiming their right to development but the classical development International Monetary Fund and the World Bank template has been challenged. See also Postdevelopment.
Sustainable development. In 1986 the United Nations formulated the Declaration on the Right to Development.
Dignity, Human: The term ‘human dignity’ as widely used in the western philosophical stream connotes a culture-bound, narrow, secular humanist view of human rights that is inappropriate for a cosmopolitan political philosophy where ‘well-being’ is both spiritual and material (See Onuma in Taylor). Neither ‘dignity,’ which is too precise, nor ‘well-being,’ which is too vague, is inclusive enough for a universal lexicon of human rights. Canadian political philosopher Charles Taylor suggested that we may not be capable of articulating universal values yet. He suggests that the mutually incompatible justifications need not prevent us from agreeing on an over-lapping consensus on specific norms of conduct.
Discursive regimes: Foucault used this term to describe how power is imbricated with knowledge. Censorship and coercion do not have to be imposed from outside. “They can be present indirectly and internally through the criteria and practices that ‘govern the production of statements’ (Hackett 1998:5).”
Donor/donee, grant-maker/grant-seeker: relationships.were part of the classical development model which is slowly being challenged and in some cases transformed into post-development models using a coalition between civil society, state and the market. Vulnerable populations in the “North” struggle with unemployment, urban violence, drugs, AIDs and environmental degradation. In an effort to find viable solutions new opportunities for more horizontal international linkages between geographic areas and nations are emerging (Oliveira and Tandon 1996).
End of history: Fukuyama declared an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism and the ultimate triumph of the West and Western liberal democracy over all other regimes (Fukuyama 1989). Fukuyama’ end of history’ referred to the grand narrative tradition of history as a dialectical process with a thesis, antithesis and synthesis or end borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Fukuyama’s ‘end of history’ referred to the grand narrative tradition of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end. The ‘end of history’ concept was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and identified by Kojeve with postwar “American way of life,” toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. Both Fukuyama and Huntington were funded by conservative John M. Olin Center and the Rand Corporation. See the section on Ayn Rand, the Chicago School of Economics.
Everyday life: is a dynamic social space, where in meanings are mutually constructed by human actors who are answerable or responsible for actions. This concept of answerability within everyday events, was developed by Bakhtin (1919-21) and summarized by Bender (1998:181) The working concept of everyday life as “the ground of sociality, culture, and the emotional ground tone of individual interaction” was developed by Lefebvre (1971), and Shields (1999). Everyday life: “the ground of sociality, culture, and the emotional ground tone of individual interaction (Lefebvre cited in Shields 1999).” See also (Debord 1961).
la facultad: Anzaldua described a latent capacity to perceive deep societal structures below the surface which develop, often unconsciously, as a survival mechanism in times of threat (Anzaldua 1987:737-9 cited in Hartsock 1998:243. Without threat of persecution ‘la facultad’ “to interpret significance of everyday life phenomena in relation to hidden inequalities in power dynamics and embedded inequalities deep structure remains underdeveloped.
Flexible workforce: refers to the mobility and versatility expected of a post-industrial contractual workforce. Flexibility benefits multinational industries but is detrimental to the development of a homeland or a community with a sense of place.
Four C’s of New Global Opportunities: Four key characteristics of globalization are Connection, Cosmopolitanism, Communication and Commodification (Brysk 2002:244).
Fraser Institute: A prominent Canadian pro-business, pro-privatization think tank and lobby group established in 1974 whose studies particularly in regards to the privatization of health and education are often cited as objective social science in the mass media. Mike Harris is a Research Fellow with the Fraser Institute.
Frissons of shame: Sensationalized or elegantly manicured moralist accounts of human rights’ abuses provide audiences with frissons of shame, surges of raw anger and tears of short-lived sympathy but there is never an expectation that things might be different. Nieztsche in describing the works of La Rochefoucauld, warned of the wearying effect these accounts on the human condition can have on readers (Tanner 1997:369).
Fusion of horizons: Gadamer developed the concept of a ‘fusion of horizons’, to further clarify Heidegger’s approach to hermeneutics. Any text, historical or political can only be hermeneutically understood or grasped momentarily from one location in space which is in constant flux since time passes, actors (interpreters) are mobile and the environment and events (interpreted) change. “[A] text is understood only if it is understood in a different way every time (Gadamer 1960 :275-6).” This process of “fusion of horizons” refers to our situatedness within a three-dimensional space translated into concepts of vantage point or standpoint, nexus, zenith and horizons (See Escher). A horizon is “the range of vision that includes everything that can be seen from a particular vantage point” (Gadamer 1960 :279) Horizon also refers metaphorically to our situatedness in time whereby we claim a standpoint in the present through which we scan the imagined pasts and potential futures. Our hermeneutic understanding depends on our ability to fuse or overlap the abstract past and real present into one horizon. For more see (Gadamer 1960 :65). This process is more akin to a video conversation that a clear two-dimensional picture.
Geopolitics of exclusion: The current state of international relations excludes Confucian, Hindu, African, indigenous peoples’ and Islamic perspectives in areas where concepts of development, healthy communities, democracy differ from those based on the dominant world order which is a compromise between a market-oriented individualism and welfare-oriented social democracy (Falk 2000b:150, 153).
Genocide as the Rational Outcome of Modernization: Genocide’s fearsome normality ‘Every ingredient of the Holocaust… was normal… in the sense of being fully in keeping with everything we know about our civilization, its guiding spirits, its priorities, its immanent vision of the world – and of the proper ways to pursue human happiness together with a perfect society.’ ((Bauman 1989).
Genocidal mentality: Robert Jay Lifton described how the genocidal mentality includes architects, perpetrators and a complicit population that chooses to draw down a numbing curtain over our feelings. Lifton provocatively and convincingly argued that genocide’s fearsome normalcy makes it a pervasive and continuing threat. Its depiction as extreme abnormal deviance only encourages complacency. Ordinary good people in Turkey during the Aremenian ordeal, in Germany, Poland and even Britain, the US and Canada, during the Holocaust, or anyone in a member nation of the United Nations during the Rwandan or Bosnian genocide, 5 were complicit in genocide when they chose denial and inaction, rather than knowledge and responsibility for intervention (Falk 2000f:165, 258; Lifton 1993).
Globalization, from below: people-oriented transnational and grassroots social forces seeking a maximally humane and sustainable world (Falk 2000a:19).
Globalization-from-above: capital-driven market forces seeking a maximally efficient world (Falk 2000a:19).
Governance: “The choice of the term governance rather than government is important for several reasons. First, governance calls attention to various forms of institutional and collective efforts to organize human affairs on a global scale, encompassing the global institutions of the UN system, various regional actors, and transnational and local grassroots initiatives. Second, the specific initiative of The Commission on Global Governance responded to a perceived window of opportunity to improve the world’s peace and security infrastructure in the aftermath of the cold war. Third, the idea of governance was intended to be flexible and analytical, avoiding the anti-sovereignty connotations of “global” or “world” government. And fourth, the focus on global governance addresses a concern that a statist world order framework would no longer capture the reality being created by the rise of market forces and the transnational activities of voluntary civic associations. It represents the conviction that self-organizing systems (such as the market or the Internet) and other non-bureaucraticized modes of authority (such as those of environmental or human rights activists and organizations) may achieve beneficial results without institutionalization. Furthermore, the beginnings of an existent global civil society are more easily encompassed within a governance structure for world society than they are within a traditional statist framework. There is also the related idea that fears and objections associated with world government may be dispelled, or at least mitigated, by thinking in terms of global governance (Falk 2000a:20).”
Great Society: Democrat President Lyndon B. Johnson cautioned the youth of America that they would have to choose between a rich, powerful society propelled by unbridled growth at the expense of old values or a “Great Society” demanding freedom for all, an end to poverty and racial injustice, equal access to education, respect for nature, where quality not quantity counts (Johnson 1964).
Gun that Won the West: is the name given the Winchester Model 94 lever action rifle known for its superior design and effectiveness. It was once used in the American Indian Wars. It is now the most popular rifle for deer hunting. Winchester Rifles and Shotguns, a licensed partner of Olin Corporation is the manufacturer of all current Winchester brand rifles and shotguns. The lever-action-repeating Henry rifle was the first magazine equipped weapon ever used by the army and it could fire twenty-five shots per minute. There were more casualties among civilians and soldiers during the Civil War because of the improved weaponry. The Henry rifle was the direct ancestor of the Winchester rifles that would be widely used after the Civil War, particularly in the American Indian Wars.
Hierarchy of human rights: or generational human rights: a constructed system by which human rights are grouped in categories of descending importance ranging from political, democratic, legal, economic, egalitarian (equality) rights, language to the most recent, environmental (social) rights (Brooks 2000:267).
Homeland: refers to a commitment to a sense of place expressed through regional and ethnic consciousness as specifically described by Berger. In the case of Nunavut this led to the devolution of power from the federal to territorial governments (Bone 2000:445). See also Frontier Human rights culture: This concept was introduced by Richard Rorty (Falk 2000d:211).
Human wrongs: This term advanced by Ken Booth in his influential essay (1995) provides a corollary to international human rights within a tradition of international relations or world order that legitimizes war between and within sovereign states creating a space for human wrongs insulated from accountability and representing an unacknowledged moral failure. See also Falk (2000d:173, 211 ).
Ideal observer: is inspired by a description of Adam Smith’s original ‘ideal observer’ in (1759) Theory of Moral Sentiments. A truth claim or value judgment can be validated if an ideal observer who is rational, sympathetic and objective accepts that truth claim or value judgment. Adam Smith’s ideal observer would not separate himself from the image but would see the entire picture as real, as objective truth. This is a world that is easier to manage, bureaucratize and organize. There are certain foundational truths about which there is no doubt. Instruments for objectively measuring the veracity of truths can be developed based on these foundations (Smith 1759).
International Truth Commissions: International Commissions of Inquiry under the auspices of the United Nations that investigate situations and submit reports of their findings but have no power to impose criminal fines or sentences (Scharf 1997:376). International prosecutions: International tribunals held at Nuremberg and Tokyo following World War II, and more recently at The Hague, Netherlands, and in Arusha, Tanzania, following the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda provided a method of establishing the record of grave human rights crimes following an international conflict or civil war (Scharf 1997:376).
Inuit Circumpolar Conference: (ICC) is the international organization of Inuit from Canada, Greenland, Alaska, Siberia. The Sami attend but are not full members. Inuit Tapirisat of Canada: (ITC) was founded in 1971 as the national Inuit organization of Canada. (incomplete)
Invisible hand of the market: A fundamental doctrine in classical liberal economics which states that economic laws are ruled by an invisible naturally occurring impulse that transcends the combined knowledge of human governance and could ensure a natural economic equilibrium, enhancing economic growth and social stability. This natural effect takes place when individuals are left to freely follow the natural impulse to acquire wealth, a policy of laissez-faire, thereby improving the social conditions of everyone. Critics of this doctrine disagree claiming that there is no empirical evidence for this claim (Falk 2000:21).
Isolationist or Interventionist Policies, United States (incomplete)
Judiciary, emphasis on: Since the 1982 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms provided a constitutional framework of rights and freedoms, more responsibility of interpretation has been placed in the hands of the Supreme Court away from legislative parliamentary framework. See Judiciary versus Legislature versus Judiciary.
Just-war: doctrine of the emerging European world order to relationships between sovereign, secular states. It was proposed by Hugo Grotius, a 17th century Dutch jurist and is considered to mark the birth of modern international law (Falk 2000a:15)”
Keynesian welfare state: Keynes argued that government-controlled taxing and spending — fiscal policy — were the major factors that affected and controlled the economy as a whole including the level of income and employment. John Kenneth Galbraith claimed that WWII provided a confirmation of the robustness of Keynesian Economic theory. Friedman disagreed stating that investment policies which are privately controlled have more impact on the economy than fiscal policies. The quantity of money in the economy is affected by monetary policy but investment policy and the flow of investments is affected and controlled by private individuals. In the 1970s government fiscal policies were generous and expansive but this did not translate into a flourishing economy. Instead the economy was stagnant while unemployment, prices and inflation soared. Friedman claimed that this disproved Keynes theory that fiscal policy affects and controls the economy. Friedman claimed that stagflation ended the Keynesian welfare state (Keynes 1924).
Kitchen Table Debate: In 1959 Republican President Richard Nixon invited Khruschev to a friendly debate on democracy and free societies. Nixon enjoyed ontological certitude that American society with its uncensored freedom exchange of ideas embodied a full realization of democratic principles. Democratic 7 government with modern scientific and technological advances provided all Americans with comfortable housing and employment. This is the democracy all nations should adopt particularly those nations like the USSR and China (Dwyer 2001) (Nixon 1959). By the 1960s President Johnson (Johnson 1964) — and student protestors (SDS 1960) — acknowledged that not all American enjoyed equal wealth and freedoms and that domestic human rights such as the violations against the rights of African Americans.
Legitimization of property rights: Classical liberal economics theory depends on this foundational concept of legitimate property rights as developed by John Locke by which a person’s right to property was derived from something in which a person had mixed his labour and that after people had appropriated property (in practice, land) there should be good and enough left over – a qualification which neither he nor his successors ever fully developed (Rowley 1996).
Lexicamps: The string game metaphor of discourse embraces a lexicon of complexity. This multi-civilizational , cosmopolitan political philosophy avoids using simplistic divisive, oppositional ‘lexicamps’ entrenched in unchallenged ontological and axiological assumptions that result in a fruitless ideological Tug-of-War (Flynn-Burhoe 2004).
Liberal political system: emphasizes the expanding role of government in securing citizen welfare. The liberal political agenda opposes global capitalism, is skeptical of the GATT trade agreements. Political liberals are concerned that privileged nations stand to gain most by free trade agreements. More moderates note that emerging countries are arguing for entry into trade agreements in the face of entrenched Western protectionism. The moderates are also concerned about the tyranny of the majority (Meadowcroft 1996). See Classical Liberal Economics agenda versus Liberal political agenda.
Libertarians: propose and promote a minimalist or Nightwatchman state. The role of the state is to protect against force, fraud, theft and to ensure social contracts are respected. Beyond that, the state does not have the right to violate the freedoms of individuals or to forcefully levy taxes that coerce individuals to provide compulsory charity for others. See (Nozick 1974 ).
Lockean liberalism: emphasized selfish passions, individual rights, the natural right to property, economic self-interest. In the 1990’s Lockean natural rights paradigm has been almost totally replaced by the neo-Machiavellian civic humanism (Ihalainen).
Lockean Neo-liberalism prioritized the rights of self-interested individuals to maximize gains through capital and property. Machiavellian, Neo-Machiavellian civic humanism: In the 1990’s Lockean natural rights paradigm has been almost totally replaced by the neo-Machiavellian civic humanism (Ihalainen).
Machiavellian, protective republicanism: Machiavelli (1513) rejected the concept of a Natural Law from God. Politics, not religion should establish the laws of society. The unitary rational actor, the state, which is by nature expansionist, through the lexicon of politics formulates laws and institutions to further its own ends of maximizing gains, maintaining and exert its power. The state protects the rights of its citizenry to freedom in their private lives. Machiavelli promoted a mixed constitution in which national interests were higher priority than individual rights to liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Wordsworth rejected Machiavelli’s theories on the militaristic authoritarian education of political rulers and heads of state which condoned absolute power and even slavery, such as that claimed by Napoleon Bonaparte. Wordsworth offered the British constitutional monarchy as a more noble form of a holistic, balanced education for princes. In the 1990’s Lockean natural rights paradigm has been almost totally replaced by the neo-Machiavellian civic humanism (Ihalainen). Machiavelli (1513) The Prince v. Augustine’s City of God (Augustine 397)
Market logic: There are two complementary logics that underpin the current system of world order: Market Logic and Statist logic. […] “Market logic is derived from the “moving forces of capital efficiency and minimal governmental regulation in an era of globalization. Increased opportunities for investment, growth, and trade are treated as the tests of a successful economic policy without raising questions of social harm. This 8 includes a laissez-faire attitude that argues that the “invisible hand of economic growth would overcome economic hardship, a view almost completely lacking empirical support (Falk 2000a:21).”
Marketisation of the welfare state: refers to Tony Blair Third Way by which public sector services such as health and education become privatized. This includes promotion of entrepreneurial universities (Rutherford 2001) .
May 1968: The events of May 1968 led to the transformation of political thought in the early 1970s (1972-7) through works produced by Foucault, Sartre originally inspired by Lefebvre .
Minimalist government: an economic theory which maximizes individual market (liberal) growth and profits by minimizing state intervention in the form of taxation, imposed social justice and environmental programs. This is the cornerstone of [neo] classical liberal economics, market liberalism, neo-liberalism. This is the theory adopted by conservative thinkers such as Hutchins/Alder-Bloom/Strauss Leo Strauss and Allan Bloom, Milton Friedman, George P. Shultz, Margaret Thatcher, Joseph McNamara, Newt Gingrich, Hayek, Ayn Rand and Milton Friedman See also Night Watchmen state.
Modernity, Radical: Radical modernity incorporates aspects of reflexive (Beck 1992) and critical modernity by embracing technological innovations and development moderated and guided by ethico-political regulations and rules, encourages socio-economic development which includes realizing individual and communal human potential. Reflexive, critical and radical modernity promotes sustainable exploitation of resources, recognizes proprietor rights to profits — developers, managers, owners — and income for workers moderated by laws, rules and regulations that prevent excessive, disproportionate profits and demands.
Modern natural law theory: In the work of Grotius, Hobbes and Locke, modern natural law theory emerges. Man only need accept the Law of Nature for his rule. The liberty of man in society is to be under no other legislative power but that established by his consent in the commonwealth.
Mogadishu line: American public followed the 1992-4 UN/US intervention in Somalia closely on CNN. Popular opinion in the US shifted away from intervention even if victims were subjects of gross human rights violations when a peak of intolerable loss of American life was reached. When the number of US soldiers killed or the brutality of those deaths reached a peak of intolerability public support for the military intervention ended. The United States retreated from Somalia weakening future UN interventions in gross human rights abuses (Falk 2000c:45).
Moral universalism: The geopolitical environment which fostered Christianity, the Enlightenment also provided a climate for the development of advanced technology and acquisition of material goods. It was in this privileged environment that the concept of moral universalism developed. Nieztsche rejected the unchallenged assumption by the privileged that their moral community was identical with our biological species, in the sense of all those organisms with which we can interbreed. “Moral universalism is an invention of the rich (Rorty 1996).”
Multi-civilizational conceptual framework:
TODA suggest seven imaginary continents: the indigenous world, the Hindu-Islamic world stretching from South East Asia to Central Asia and North Africa, the Buddhist-Confucian world stretching from East to Central and South East Asia, the African world south of the Sahara, the Euro-North American world stretching from the Ural Mountains to Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand and the Latin American world. The TODA critically examines the role of state, market, civil society, political participation, women, migration and diasporic communities, technological innovation and adaptation, cultural identity and multiple citizenship, urban planning, art and literature, etc. in the emerging global civilization resulting from convergences of past and present cultures, focusing on advancing the cause of peace, justice and democracy (TODA 2000). The seven imaginary continents may be problematic in that there is not a homogeneous ideology connecting the constituent parts. 9
Nature of justice, pre-modern: the nature of justice prior to the Thirty Years War was based on assumptions that the medieval Roman Catholic Church in Europe had universal authority regarding divine revelation, rationality and the objective order of the universe which therefore provided the basis of social justice between states (Falk 2000a:15).
Natural Law: is a doctrine by which certain absolute moral and legal standards including an innate sense of justice, are God-given, inherent in the rational human subject. Man-made laws must therefore reflect these God-given laws.
Natural rights, the Founders: Natural rights, referred to in the Declaration of Independence are the legitimizing basis of the American constitutional guarantee equal natural rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as a moral standard. This higher Natural Law, which is above all governments and man-made laws, places limits on self-interested, acquisitive unitary rational human actors and is ordained by God. Governments uphold their legitimacy by enforcing natural rights while allowing maximum freedom for individuals to abide by God’s Natural Laws.
Natural liberty: “The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth, and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but to have only the Law of Nature for his rule. The liberty of man in society is to be under no other legislative power but that established by consent in the commonwealth…. (Donnelly 1999; Locke 1690).”
Neo-liberalism: Market logic [that] favours liberalization of the economy, privatization of ownership, a minimal regulatory role for government, a stress on the most efficient return on capital, and a conviction that poverty, social distress, and even environmental deterioration are best addressed through the invisible hand of rapid economic growth and the beneficence of the private sector (Falk 2000a:22).” See also neo-classical economics, market liberalism, rational economics, Washington consensus and neo-conservative.
Night Watchmen state: The Locke Institute sponsored a series entitled The Shaftesbury Papers, after John Locke’s political patron, on liberalism. They advocate a minimal liberalism confining the role of government to one of providing protection of the legitimate rights of life, liberty and property. This is called the “night-watchman state.” Governments that fail to protect private property should be overthrown (Rowley 1996). Contemporary proponents of the Night Watchman state include (Nozick 1974 ). See also Minimalist government.
Olin Foundation: Both Fukuyama and Huntington were funded by conservative John M. Olin Center and the Rand Corporation. See the section on Ayn Rand and the Chicago School of Economics.
Packaged Consciousness Business: Herbert Schiller’s “packaged consciousness” describes the intensified appropriation of the national symbolic environment by a “few corporate juggernauts in the consciousness business (Hackett 1998:5).”
Pathological situation: a term coined by U. S. Conservative Federal Justice Richard A. Posner’s to describe a situation in which essential life-saving actions are considered to be politically unfeasible (impossible) even though abstaining from those actions will result in the direct or indirect loss of the right to life because available resources are insufficient — therefore medically, financially or physically unfeasible. In cases of disaster, front line health workers are faced with pathological situations when the right to life is temporarily withdrawn and appropriate recipients of aid, the survivors are selected through triage. Rorty likens the disaster-scene scenario to urban disadvantaged communities whose needs in housing, employment, education and social services exceed the available resources (Rorty 1996).
Pax America: (1946 – 2000) describes a US-centred long peace in which the rich and powerful of the United States enjoyed a period of security, growth and prosperity. Pax America ignored 125 devastating wars world-wide resulting in 40 million deaths as disruptive to this concept of peace and prosperity (Falk 2000:174). Terms 10 were coined, such as ‘Deterrence’ describing a politically strategic process through which war that inflicts harm on the rich and powerful, is avoided […], balance of power, credibility, containment…
S/Places on the margin: Shields describes these marginal spaces as towns and regions that have been left behind in the modern race for progress (Shields 1991). See also CSA Review.
Post-development: practitioners reject the GDP and GNP/capita measures as adequate indicators of strong development (Peet and Hartwick 1999:11).
Private/public: Classical republicans did not distinguish between private and public. Machiavelli formulated this modern concept of two distinct spheres: private and public. As fascism and rumours of war in Europe escalated, Virginia Woolf argued that private and public are inseparable. Male-dominated power structures military, state, market and academia made decisions to participate on wars under the guise of patriotism affecting the lives of women. Woolf challenged women to use power in the private sector to challenge the public sector claiming, “the public and the private worlds are inseparably connected (Woolf 1938) .” (Brown and Gilligan 1992; Edwards and Ribbens 1998).
Rapporteur: individual investigators appointed by the United Nations to look into and report annually to the Commission on Human Rights on incidents of human rights abuses in specific areas such as religious intolerance (Benito 1987).
Reality/appearance distinction: Nietzsche in Twilight of the Idols and William James in Pragmatism challenged the assumption that “… truth as correspondence to reality only makes sense if reality has an intrinsic nature, and that it is unclear how we could ever tell whether or not a given descriptive vocabulary “corresponds” to such a nature (Rorty 1996).” Hobbes discussed the reality/appearance distinction referring to Plato.
Realist modes: “of thinking assumes that sovereign states are the sole international political actors, and that power alone informs the structure of relations among states. Justice is disregarded. International institutions are discredited. Since the 1950s statist logic is associated with such realist thinkers as Hans Morenthau, Reinhold Niebuhr, George Kennan and Henry Kissinger. Historically the realist mode thinking can be found in the writing of Machiavelli, Hobbes and Clausewitz (Falk 2000a:22, 204).” “At the opposite end of the spectrum of international policy analysis are the realist approach to politics and the normative. The realist perspective focuses almost uniquely on power and wealth. Normative matters include customs, morality and law (Falk 2000c).”
Realism, Straussian Strauss and his followers promote practical realism and political expediencies over the moral high ground. Straussians defend the actions of 18th and 19th century Americans in terms of the genocide of First Nations and enslavement of African-Americans as politically expedient and realistic. Straussians judge the morality of actions based on their outcomes, not on their intentionality or on contemporary ethical standards of accountability. States are reified to the status of unitary rational actors who are not accountable for shameful past actions that resulted in positive outcomes over time.
Regime of objectivity: a concept introduced by Hackett by which mass media is tied directly to concepts of democracy, public responsibility, public life and public good and is therefore expected to function in public interest not just economic self-interest (Hackett 1998:1) Regimes of significance: Scott Lash’s concept of “regimes of significance” encompasses cultural economy and a specific mode of signification. A cultural economy is comprised “of relations and institutions by which cultural objects are produced and consumed. [Mode of signification is a] “typical way by which cultural objects become meaningful to those use them […] Lash and other theorists make distinctions between discursive and figural, modernist and postmodernist, and cognitive and aesthetic ways of seeing and knowing (Hackett and Zhao 1998:6) .” 11
Republicanism: The concept of republicanism informed by the Greek republics was revived during the Renaissance in response to the despotism of princes and popes in medieval Europe who claimed that they were given a natural or divine right to rule. During the Renaissance the concept of republicanism referred to the right to self-government including the formation of institutions of self-government, the right of citizens to participate in government and a constitutional framework. Republicanism, classical: In the 1960s and 1970s liberal political thinkers concerned primarily with social equity, embraced Neo-Classical Republican politics of civic virtue, yearning for community and equality over liberty. They rejected Lockean Neo-liberalism which prioritized the rights of individuals to accumulate private property and wealth. See also neo-Machiavellian civic humanism
Republicanism, developmental: Jean-Jacques Rousseau concept of developmental republicanism rejected the primacy of the individual rights to accumulate private wealth, prestige and power. Rousseau placed primacy on the role of the state in assuring the realizing the development of human potentials which would in turn, unleash the “general will,” be conducive to happiness and promote freedom.
Rights of disposition: Robert Petersen, a well-known Greenlandic Professor and President of the University of Greenland in Nuuk, argued that, ownership in Inuit society is replaced by the concept of “the rights of disposition.” Individuals enjoyed customary rights to use a place for hunting or fishing. If an individual stopped using the place, anyone else could use it (Lynge 1993:51-2)” “Traditional Inuit culture did not include the concept of private land ownership. Instead, it recognized a right to use a particular area for hunting and camping purposes. As long as an individual or family used a particular place it was respected by the society. When the European concept of land ownership was introduced the result was a loss of Inuit lands because the Inuit could not prove ownership (Lynge 1993:53):52.”
Right of interference is a Baha’i concept which argues that the state (governments and courts of justice) have the right to intervene in conflicts that impact negatively on citizens. Since the market, industry, agriculture and the general affairs of the country are inextricably linked, abuses in any one of these sectors impacts on the masses. The courts of justice and government can establish just and impartial laws, rules and regulations to define, insure and protect the mutual rights of industrialists, manufacturers, managers, institutions and staff, employees and workers. The right of interference is not a right to impose equality of income. Entrepreneurs, manufacturers have the right to profit from their role in direction and administration. But this right is balanced with a need for moderation to avoid excessive, disproportionate fortunes. Employees have the right to a means of existence, security for the future in the form of personal savings, adequate pension and a share of profits. They cannot make excessive demands such as impudent wages beyond their rights. When necessary, the government and courts of justice can intervene when two individuals are in conflict over private rights but this is not intended for government intervention in ordinary affairs between private persons (Abdu’l-Baha 1912 ).
Security dilemma: This is a classical dilemma, in which sovereign states as unitary rational actors that constantly seek to maximize gains and are therefore in aggressive competition with neighboring states of equal power. They need to maintain levels of security to protect themselves against predatory competitors. This was first formulated by the Greek dramatist, Thucydides in reference to the expansionist policies of the Athenian alliance of Greek city-states. A Boeotian leader described the security dilemma as, “in all relations with one’s neighbors, freedom is the result of being able to hold one’s own, and as for those neighbors, who, not content with those close to them, are trying to spread their domination far and wide, with them we must simply fight it out to the last.” Hobbes argued that “in all times kings and persons of sovereign authority, because of their independence, are in continuous jealousies and in the state and posture of gladiators and which is a posture of war” (Ifestos 2002). “Edward H. Carr, Hans Morgenthau, Raymond Aron, Kenneth Waltz, Robert Gilpin, Stephen Krasner and others scrutinized further the security dilemma. The basic assumption along this line of thought is that, the most important factors that determine state behavior are anarchy, uneven growth, the distribution of power and the concern for both absolute as well as relative gains. They stressed the importance of the struggle of survival of individual states, the existence of fear and mistrust among sovereign collectivities and their constant efforts to maximize their power to secure a favorable position in the system (Ifestos 2002).” 12
Self-determination ” All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development” (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 1976). This is of particular interest to indigenous peoples worldwide. Second-class Liechensteinian is a significant, symbolic, flexible sovereignty in an economically, politically, culturally meaningful form (Falk 2000a).
Self-determination, three orders of: First order UN era self-determination refers to a geopolitical autonomous sovereign bounded state, such as Canada, claiming autonomy from a colonizing state, Britain (Falk 2000a); second order self-determination refers to the states such as Yugoslavia claiming independence from a federated state, the USSR. Third order self-determination refers to sub-units of either a unitary Westphalian state or a member of a federation and fourth order self-determination refers to First Peoples, whose nationhood predated both the Westphalian state and the colonial imposed systems, claiming self-governance (UN 1994).
Space myths: Shields (1991) argued that the myth of the North as authentic, ‘strong and free’ was appropriated by southern-central Canada to symbolize Canadian national identity. The north spans the continent from east to west serving to reconcile conflicting regional viewpoints (Shields 1991). See also CSA Review.
State shattering refers to the formation of new states as distinct peoples claim self-determination within former countries that were under colonial rule. Statist logic is a concept that reifies sovereign states to the status of a Hobbesian unitary rational actor. The sovereign Westphalian territorial state has resulted in numerous wrongs since its inception in 1648 (Booth, Ken cited in Falk 2000a:21). Since the 1950s statist logic is associated with such realist thinkers as George Kennan and Henry Kissinger.
Sustainable development At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 it was recognized that extreme poverty and social exclusion of vulnerable groups persisted and inequalities had become increasingly dramatic in spite of economic development. At this conference the term sustainable development referred to “economic development, social development and environmental protection as interdependent and mutually reinforcing components (Symonides 1998:3).”
Teleological discourse: The eurocentric, teleological discourse is encountered in all aspects of European modernity; in Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger and Valéry; in politico-institutional discourses; Kant’s logic of teleology assigns to Europe the role of founder of science, history and philosophy claiming the right and responsibility to legislate over nature and other continents. Kant announced, predicted, prefigured, and prescribed international institutions that came into being in the 20th century. These institutions are philosophical acts, archives, productions and products (Derrida 1996).
Third Way: “Tony Blair’s advocacy of the “Third Way,” indicates that the international political climate is more receptive to concerns of justice. (Falk 2000c:22).” European elections appear to repudiate neoliberal political orientations in favour of more social-democratic outlooks. The social-democratic outlook and the notion of a social Europe are called the Third Way. The Third Way “seeks to reaffirm the social commitments to the poor or jobless without repudiating the move toward a dynamic model of European economic integration. In effect, social Europe implies that the advantages of this new phase of capitalism do not have to eclipse the human achievements of the welfare state, the labour movement, and social democracy. The United Nations Development Program has been encouraging a similar approach, which it calls “pro-poor growth,” and amounts to an affirmative-action strategy of capital investment that gives priority to those forms of investment that clearly benefit the poor (Falk 2000a:28).” Third Way: Falks describes Giddens’ Global Third Way as the “way forward for both neoliberal and social democratic orientations to shape a new politics that is both business-friendly and socially empathetic, while avoiding the dogmatic extremes of either unconditional deference to market forces or an uncritical endorsement of the welfare state. The Third Way aims 13 to minimize the intrusiveness of the state without overlooking the special needs of the poor and jobless. Whether their approach is genuinely new or merely masks a shift to the right by the old left of center is difficult to say (Falk 2000c:240).”
Trickle down mechanism is a theory arguing that the poorest in society eventually will benefit from development as economic growth initiated by an elite leads to an improved living conditions for all (Peet and Hartwick 1999:11). The example of Chile is used by neoclassical economists to argue that the trickle down mechanism works.
Truth commissions “serve four primary purposes: (1) to establish an historic record; (2) to obtain justice for the victims; (3) to facilitate national reconciliation; and (4) to deter further violations and abuses. Creating a credible account of human rights crimes “prevents history from being lost or rewritten, and allows a society to learn from its past in order to prevent a repetition of such violence in the future (Hayner 1995:225-62).”
Tyranny of the masses or the majority: This refers to the tension between the Right and the Might, or those who are governed by Reason versus the unwashed masses that outweigh the reasoned citizens by sheer force of numbers.
Undeserving poor: Neo-classical liberal economists argue that concessions to undeserving poor threaten liberty of deserving rich and at worst represents a form of theft (Rowley 1996).
Unitary rational actors: These are the principal agents of Hobbes’ontological system which has been extrapolated from individual humans to states and more recently to corporations. A state or a corporation as an atomistic, individual rational actor has the right to strive to maximize relative and absolute gains and their own security over that of others (Ifestos 2002). The corporation as unitary rational actor has become an essential part of neoclassical liberal economic system.
Utilitarianism intended as an ethical doctrine that equates utility with economic value. The philosophers of the Scottish Enlightenment — Hume, Smith, Hutcheson — (1740-1790) were partially inspired by the French Enlightenment and its speculative-rationalist spirit but they adopted more utilitarian ethical precepts whereby virtue, a social construction, could be achieved by pursuing the greatest good for the greatest number. The 18th century Scots had witnessed the pauperization of Ireland during the English agricultural revolution and they were attracted to the promise of economic development and growth via an English-style capitalism. Following the 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England Glasgow merchants welcomed free trade. They were soon involved in the tobacco trade with the colonies. John Stuart Mill (1806 -1873), after working for most of his life as administrator of the East India Company, attempted to seek scientific explanations for social, political and economic phenomena. He developed his arguments on the pursuit of happiness through the doctrine utilitarianism Utilitarianism (1861). The tension between Bentham’s utilitarianism and democracy was discussed by Mills (1848), Herbert Spencer (1853) and Webb (1889). Unrestrained private ownership logically results in great wealth in few hands and is therefore, irreconcilable with the realization of well-being and happiness for all. Utilitarian ethical precepts therefore, cannot be reconciled with a modern democracy. Twentieth century economists and political theorists (Hayek, Rand, Friedman, Schulz and Mies) disagreed asserting that maximizing a nation’s economic efficiency and therefore the growth of a nation’s Gross National Product, will eventually enrich the general population and fulfill the utilitarian promise of the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
Veil of ignorance: a method for formulating a social contract in which unitary rational actors agree to be impartial in their construction of a constitution of society by imagining a hypothetical situation in which they as framers assume a veil of ignorance about their own situation vis-à-vis the contract. They might be advantaged, disadvantaged, rich, poor, female, male, white or black.
Just society a concept developed by John Rawls describing a just society as one in which the rights secured by justice are not subject to political bargaining or to calculus of social interests. 14
Voluntary Benefactor Alleviation of Social Injustice: Wealthy benefactors voluntarily choose to intervene in situations of social injustice such as the alleviation of poverty by making voluntary donations as opposed to government imposed taxation (Rowley 1996). As sovereign states become disempowered, billionaire philanthropists — Ted Turner, George Soros and Bill Gates — and other private individuals and organizations become the alternative to the state in finding solutions to social issues such as poverty, unemployment and alienation (Falk 2000e).
Welfare State , See Keynesian Welfare State
Westphalian state system or view of international society is one based on the concept of territorial sovereign states which emerged in 1648 following the Thirty Years’ War. The tension exists between maintaining global security by respecting boundaries of existing national geopolitical (Westphalian) sovereign states versus the rights of distinct peoples within those boundaries. For a critique of the Westphalian state, see Booth who lays the blame on the Westhphalian state for human wrongs (Booth 1995).
White privilege , invisible knapsack refers to the concept that there are a number privileges that are assumed by to be accessible to everyone all but when closely examined are available only to a privileged group (McIntosh 1988).
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