Enter links in a Google spreadsheet

=hyperlink(“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_economics”;”Financial economics”)


Wikipedia article on Financial economics



This is a personal research tool to help me in writing and editing wikipedia articles. Wikipedia provides in-depth information that is more useful, up-to-date and accurate than information on this blog post. For example, for information on citing books, see here. These are the templates I use most and have provided them here in one easy to find page.

I am entranced by wiki tools.

Wiki codes are improving constantly in pace with wiki content. Much of wikipedia is produced, maintained, created and edited through the work of countless volunteers.

When I find a tiny chunk of data that is not tied to an index I sometimes feel compelled to link it hoping that it will help someone else or even my future self. It might save time later.

Wikipedia lets me do that.

I can correct someone else’s minor error. They can correct mine.

I can make a major change to an article and someone else can make a major change to mine.

When I want to learn better practices in codes I can look up a {{Good article}} for examples.

There are always more experienced wikipedia editors who check for errors, inconsistencies, weaknesses, oversights (especially in the use of referenced material, too close paraphrasing etc).

Most recent finds:


{{convert|37100|cuft/s|m3/s|abbr=on}} re river flows in floods

Citation template details!
|Template details!
1. pages
|pages= 5–7″ produces “pp. 5–7″ Page ranges should be separated by an unspaced en dash (–).

|page= 5” produces “p. 5”.

“These parameters are for listing the pages relevant to the citation, not the total number of pages in the report.”

2. |laysummary=: Link to a non-technical summary (or review) of the report
3. {{Citation
4. |contribution= Affidavit
5.|editor-last= Toohy| editor-first = Dennis J.
6. |publication-date= September 24, 1872
7. |publication-place= Corinne, Utah
8.|contribution-url= http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
11.| chapter =
12.| section =

*complete report template uses{{Cite report | author = | authorlink = | coauthors = | date =
| title = | url = | publisher = | format = | others = | edition = | location = | chapter = | section = | page = | pages =
| docket = | accessdate = | quote =}}

*==Harvard in line page citations!==
Finally found this! {{harv|Smith|2005|p=25}}

*editors leave a space between headings but not between a heading and the para

===Anglo-French offensive preparations===
After the attacks of 12 and 15 September,


*footnotes, notes and references from Battle of Morval
This “particularly by an increased willingness to surrender.{{sfn|Duffy|2007|p=243}}” = a footnote
This “longer-range reconnaissance and bombing.{{sfn|Jones|1928|pp=147–148}} |group=”Note”}}” = a Note
Does the editor create the reference list manually?

==See also==
{{portal|World War I}}

===Victoria Cross===
* Private [[Thomas Alfred Jones]], 1st [[The Cheshire Regiment|Cheshires]].{{sfn|Miles|1938|p=376}}



* {{cite book |ref={{harvid|Beach|2005}}
|title=British Intelligence and the German Army, 1914–1918 |last=Beach |first=J | authorlink= |year=2005 |publisher=London University |location=London | edition= |OCLC=500051492}}

(there should be no spaces before ref tags; there _should_ be spaces after them) spaceBroner, 1978;nospace

*no spaces between |title=title|date=

* References

*Further Reading
===Further Reading===
*{{cite book


Contents [hide]
1 Themed lists
1.1 Demographics
1.2 Economy
1.2.1 Gross domestic product
1.2.2 Industrial Output
1.2.3 Agriculture
1.3 Environment
1.4 Geography
1.5 Military
1.6 Names
1.7 Politics
1.8 Sports
1.9 Tourism
1.10 Transport
1.11 Miscellaneous
2 References

*Citation template that shows how to add page numbers for distinct inline references without having page number show up in list of references. So simple!

{{cite news
|title= A Magnitsky law for Europe
|newspaper= ”[[The Financial Times]]”
|date= January 3, 2013 (paper edition)
|accessdate=5 January 2013
}} p. 8.

*Multiple authors
|authorlink=George Monbiot

*Linking offsite urls Firestone Duncan[http://www.firestone-duncan.com/]

*Some articles are much more developed and can be used as models for a variety of templates. I try to use the more recent articles for the more recent templates. The wiki article on Steve Jobs is one of those.

References and sources:


“Social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), blogs etc. are NOT reliable, while newspaper articles, magazines (Time Magazine), books etc. ARE reliable (wikipedia editing page re: Steve Jobs’ article.”

Wikipedia Template for References

Generating the full bibliography and webliography at the end of the article

At the end of the article the following code generates the complete bibliographic reference list in wikipedia’s perferred bibliographic style. I prefer to fill in the templates manually to ensure all relevant data is included. It takes longer but may prevent the loss of a reference if an url becomes a dead end.

==My Common Mistakes==

    day= is deprecated – use |date= if all three components are available
    city vs location
    format=PDF not .pdf as I use
    [[capillary action|capillary forces]]  the second one is the one that displays?

==link to main article within an article==
{{Main|Global warming}}

==How to link a phrase to outside sites==

[http://www.cees.iupui.edu/Research/Water_Resources/CIWRP/Algae_Information/Presentations/2010-06-17-Symposium/2010-06-17_Lehman-Whole_Lake_Experiments.pdf |Whole Lake Experiments]

==ref name= / ==
Does the name need “”? No

==creating categories==

== References ==

== References ==

Individual bibliographic/webliographic entries

  1. New! editor replaced <ref>Gregory S. Aldrete (2004), ”Daily Life in the Roman City: Rome, Pompeii and Ostia”, p. 78, ISBN 978-0-313-33174-9</ref> with

{{sfn|Aldrete|2004|pp=79f.}} and {{sfn|Aldrete|2004|pp=78-9}} and {{sfn|Aldrete|2004|pp=79 ff.}} for exact page numbers! great, wondered how to do that.

  1. This <ref> “Whole Lake Experiment, Ford Lake, Prof Lehman”[ http://www.cees.iupui.edu/Research/Water_Resources/CIWRP/Algae_Information/Presentations/2010-06-17-Symposium/2010-06-17_Lehman-Whole_Lake_Experiments.pdf%5D</ref&gt; replaced with this <ref>[http://www.cees.iupui.edu/Research/Water_Resources/CIWRP/Algae_Information/Presentations/2010-06-17-Symposium/2010-06-17_Lehman-Whole_Lake_Experiments.pdf “Whole Lake Experiment, Ford Lake, Prof Lehman”]</ref>

Each bibliographic entry has a <ref> </ref>to open and close each reference.

It is preferable to use eg <ref name=”Rawls”> when using several citations from the same article.

    • See Wikipedia Template:Cite web {{cite web}} horizontal
      • Day Month Year
        {{cite news |title= |first= |last= |url= |newspaper= |date= |accessdate=3 June 2012}}
      Month Day, Year
      {{cite news |title= |first= |last= |url= |newspaper= |date= |accessdate=June 3, 2012}}
    • See Wikipedia Template:Cite news {{Cite news}}
    • <ref>{{cite web
      |accessdate=December 4, 2011
      |}}</ref><ref>{{cite web

      • Using authorlink to link to article about the author on Wikipedia
        • <ref>{{cite news | first=George | last=Monbiot | authorlink=George Monbiot | title=From toxic waste to toxic assets, the same people always get dumped on | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cif-green/2009/sep/21/global-fly-tipping-toxic-waste | newspaper=The Guardian | location=London | date=22 September 2009 }}</ref>


{{cite book
|contribution=C. Mitigation in the short and medium term (until 2030).
|title= Summary for Policymakers.
|series=Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
|editor=B. Metz ”et al.”
|publisher=Print version: [[Cambridge University Press]], Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: IPCC website
|accessdate=May 15 2010

|title=The universe in short
|first1=Stephen W.
|publisher=Bantam Books

|title=The Nobel prize: a history of genius, controversy, and prestige
|publisher=Arcade Publishing
|url=http://books.google.com/?id=xnckeeTICn0C}}, [http://books.google.com/books?id=xnckeeTICn0C&pg=PA141 Page 141]

In 1901, Einstein had a paper on the [[capillary action|capillary forces]] of a straw published in the prestigious ”[[Annalen der Physik]]”.
|last = Galison
|first = Peter
|authorlink = Peter Galison
|title = Einstein’s Clocks, Poincaré’s Maps: Empires of Time
|publisher = W.W. Norton
|location = New York
|year = 2003
|isbn = 0393020010 }}

Further Reading

==Further reading==
* {{cite book|title=Geo-Engineering Climate Change: Environmental Necessity or Pandora’s Box?|
editor1-first=Brian|editor1-last=[[Brian Launder|Launder]]|editor2-first=J. Michael T. |editor2-last=Thompson|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|date=December 2009|isbn=978-0-521-198035}}
*{{cite book|author=[[Eli Kintisch]]|year=2010|title=Hack the Planet: Science’s Best Hope, or Worst Nightmare, for Averting Climate Catastrophe|isbn=978-0470524268}}
*{{cite book|author=Jeff Goodell|authorlink=Jeff Goodell|year=2010|title=How to Cool the Planet: Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth’s Climate|isbn=978-0618990610}}
* {{cite journal| journal= [[Nature (journal)|Nature]]| volume= 447| pages= 132–136| date=May 10, 2007 | doi=10.1038/447132a| title=Climate change: Is this what it takes to save the world?| first=Oliver| last= Morton| pmid= 17495899| issue= 7141}} –Abstract only, full article requires payment.
*{{cite book|author=[[James Rodger Fleming]]|publisher=[[Columbia University Press]]|date=September 15, 2010|title=Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control|isbn=978-0231144124}}
*[http://www.irgc.org/-Granger-Morgan-.html Granger Morgan], Katharine Ricke (2010). ”An Opinion Piece for [http://www.irgc.org IRGC]. Cooling the Earth Through Solar Radiation Management: The need for research and an approach to its governance.” ISBN 978-2-9700672-8-3

For references that are cited several times in the same article use this for subsequent references:

<ref> name=”rawls” <ref />


(French: ”Ministère de l’Écologie, du Développement durable, des Transports et du Logement”, ”’MEDDTL”’)

{{Language icon|en|English}}

Duplication Detector

Duplication Detector “is a tool used to compare any two web pages to identify text which has been copied from one to the other. It can compare two Wikipedia pages to one another, two versions of a Wikipedia page to one another, a Wikipedia page (current or old revision) to an external page, or two external pages to one another. Duplication detector locates passages in which the text on the two pages is the same (wiki article).”

Dead Link

Link Rot, linkrot, link death, link breaking, broken link, dangling link are links that point to a source that is unavailable or do not work. Wikipedia editors are concerned about link rot and encourage the use of services like  WebCite, that provide on-demand web archiving.  WebCite, archives copies of online links that remain available even if the original link is a dead link.  The New York Times and wordpress offers the service of a permalink. para wiki

Wikipedia also recommends the Wayback Machine which takes webpage snapshots.

The following codes etc are from the wikipedia article entitled Faye Wong created and frequently edited by User:Fayenatic london, is administrator on English Wikipedia. Fayenatic london is among the 800 most active editors on Wikipedia.

How to create a quote box:

dead urls can also be archived here



|archivedate=23 March 2005


Centered (but not floating any more):

{{Quote box
 |quote  = Cry "Havoc," and let slip the dogs of war.
 |source = [[William Shakespeare]], ''[[Julius Caesar (play)|Julius Caesar]]'', Act III, Scene I.
 |width  = 50%
 |align  = center
{{Lorem ipsum}}


Linking to other wikipedia articles when the titles are not identical

since [[Mainland Chinese|Mainlanders]] were [[stereotyped]]


film [[Confucius (2010 film)|”Confucius”]] was released


Other references I want to understand later:
{{Cite arXiv}} arXiv preprint {{Cite AV media}} audio and visual {{Cite AV media notes}} audio and visual liner notes {{Cite book}} books {{Cite conference}} conference papers {{Cite DVD-notes}} DVD liner notes {{Cite encyclopedia}} edited collections {{Cite episode}} radio or television episodes {{Cite interview}} interviews {{Cite journal}} magazines, journals, academic papers {{Cite mailing list}} public mailing lists {{Cite map}} maps {{Cite music release notes}} audio and video liner notes {{Cite news}} news articles {{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups {{Cite podcast}} audio or video podcast {{Cite press release}} press releases {{Cite serial}} audio or video serials {{Cite sign}} signs, plaques {{Cite speech}} speeches {{Cite techreport}} technical reports {{Cite thesis}} theses {{Cite web}} web sources

Digitage Web 2.0 2012

January 4, 2012

Web 2.0 Digitage 2012

Web 2.0 Digitage 2012,
originally uploaded by ocean.flynn.

Logos from Web 2.0 are caught in the web somewhere between, a NASA image of a nebula, a starry night, clouds, science fiction landscapes of our inner space, the synapses of the brain, the virtual space that is not abstract, imagined or really real.

Web 2.0, is a term coined by Tim O’Reilly in 2004 for a series of conferences on a revivified Internet. O’Reilly (2005) in what is now considered to be his seminal article claimed that, “If Netscape was the standard bearer for Web 1.0, Google is most certainly the standard bearer for Web 2.0 (O’Reilly 2005). He contrasted Web 1.0 with Web 2.0 by citing examples: DoubleClick vs Google AdSense, Ofoto vs Flickr, Britannica Online vs Wikipedia, personal websites vs blogging, domain name speculation vs search engine optimization, page views vs cost per click, publishing vs participation, content management systems vs wikis directories (taxonomy) vs tagging (“folksonomy”) and stickiness vs syndication. The conceptual map his team devised provides a sketch of Web 2.0 showing social networking sites, wikis, communication tools, and folksonomies.

Although some argue that it does not exist as anything more than geek jargon, for this new user, it is a promising and surprising paradigm shift in the Internet and in software development. I began blogging using Web 2.0 freeware in September 2006. Numerous users like myself have access to sophisticated, ever-improving software technologies since the cost of development is shared among enthusiastic nerds and geeks (in a good way). Freeware on Web 2.0 is not proprietary by nature but is capable of generating huge profits because of the viral way in which users share in the development, marketing and growth of the product while improving connectivity and in content in the process.

Web 2.0

  • the network as platform
  •  not proprietary by nature
  • spans all connected devices
  • applications make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform
  • deliver software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it (wikis: wikipedia, Flickr, Google, Amazon, ebay, craigslist, and all other other Web 2.0 superstar applications)
  • consumes and remixes data from multiple sources, including individual users (users of images in Flickr, Picassa,
  • provide own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others (Creative Commons)
  • creating network effects through an architecture of participation
  • tagging, folksonomies
  • blogging, microblogging
  • search engine optimization
  • semantic web
  • social networking sites: Facebook, Google +,
platforms, projects, sites
  • social network sites: Facebook, myspace, bebo, friendster, hi5, orkut, perfspot, zorpia, netlog, habbo, Google +,
  • microblogging: Twitter, Tumblr, posterous, Friendfeed, Plurk
  • blog services: WordPress, TypePad, Squarespace, Blogger, MySpace, AOL Journals, Windows Live Spaces, Xanga, LiveJournal
  • search engines: www.Google.com, http://www.Yahoo.com, http://www.Bing.com, http://www.Ask.com, http://www.Teoma.com, http://www.DuckDuckGo.com, http://www.Entireweb.com, http://www.blekko.com, http://www.ScrubTheWeb.com, www.Gigablast.com
  • Web Browsers: Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Opera, Safari
  • social bookmarking/discovery sites: CiteUlike, del.icio.us, digg, Google, Newsvine, reddit, StumbleUpon, ConnoteaSquidoo, AddThis, ShareThis,
  • free image hosting: Flickr, Picasa, PanoramioTinyPic, WebShots, Imageshack, Photobucket, SeeHere, Snapfish, DeviantART,
  • free video hosting: YouTube, Vimeo
  • free PowerPoint hosting: SlideShare, Google Docs
  • Creative Commons License
  • Amazon, craigslist,
  • wikis: wikipedia
  • maps: Google Earth, Google Maps
  • Storify, the Twitter and multi-media curation service
  • Client-side development/web browser technologies: Rich and interactive portal web applications use a variety of technologies such as Ajax, JavaScript, JSON, and patterns such as REST. These technologies and patterns allow developers to create increasingly responsive and highly interactive web applications.
  • Software Extensions: from server to platform: Adobe Reader, Adobe Flash player, Microsoft SilverlightActiveX, Oracle Java, Quicktime, Windows Media, etc.
  • Feeds (Syndication technology): Googlereader, RSS, WordPress, notifies users of content changes.
  • Folksonomies
  • Education 2.0
  • Goverment 2.0
  • Enterprise 2.0
  • Health 2.0
  • Science 2.0
cloud computing

“Any web application is a cloud application in the sense that it resides in the cloud. Google, Amazon, Facebook, twitter, flickr, and virtually every other Web 2.0 application is a cloud application in this sense. However, it seems to me that people use the term “cloud” more specifically in describing web applications that were formerly delivered locally on a PC, like spreadsheets, word processing, databases, and even email. Thus even though they may reside on the same server farm, people tend to think of gmail or Google docs and spreadsheets as “cloud applications” in a way that they don’t think of Google search or Google maps.This common usage points up a meaningful difference: people tend to think differently about cloud applications when they host individual user data. The prospect of “my” data disappearing or being unavailable is far more alarming than, for example, the disappearance of a service that merely hosts an aggregated view of data that is available elsewhere (say Yahoo! search or Microsoft live maps.) And that, of course, points us squarely back into the center of the Web 2.0 proposition: that users add value to the application by their use of it. Take that away, and you’re a step back in the direction of commodity computing (O’Reilly 2008).”

A Timeline of Selected Events Related to Web 2.0

2011 Web 2.0 Summit 

“Once each year, the Web 2.0 Summit brings together 1,000 senior executives from the worlds of technology, media, finance, telecommunications, entertainment, and the Internet. For 2011, our theme is “The Data Frame” – focusing on the impact of data in today’s networked economy. We live in a world clothed in data, and as we interact with it, we create more – data is not only the web’s core resource, it is at once both renewable and boundless.”

“Web 2.0 Expo began eons ago in Internet Years – April of 2007 – in San Francisco. It was the first conference and tradeshow for the rapidly growing ranks of designers and developers, product managers, entrepreneurs, VCs, marketers, and business strategists who embraced the opportunities created by Web 2.0, a term coined at the birth of Web 2.0 Summit (formerly named Web 2.0 Conference), a joint venture between O’Reilly Media , UBM TechWeb, and Federated Media.” Pike, Kaitlin. 2011-12-01. “Long Goodbye to Web 2.0 Expo.”

Selected webliography

Alexander, Bryan. Levine, Alan. 2008. “Web 2.0 Storytelling: Emergence of a New Genre.” Educause.

Alexander and Levine (2008) identify two essential features that are useful in distinguishing Web 2.0 projects and platforms from the rest of the web: microcontent and social media.

Boulton, Clint. 2011-10-17. “Web 2.0 Summit: Salesforce.com’s Benioff Praises Oracle, Loves Facebook.” Enterprise Applications News.

“[C]ompanies must “beware the false cloud” Oracle and other virtualization software vendors offer as private clouds that come on disks. True cloud computing, he explained, is hosted, multi-tenant and lives on the Web—not on a disk.”

O’Reilly, Tim. 2007. “What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software.” O’Reilly Media. Communications and Strategies. No. 1, p. 17, First Quarter. Social Science Network Page.

Abstract: “This paper was the first initiative to try to define Web 2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an architecture of participation, and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences.”

Tim O’Reilly, 2005. “What Is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software”. Uploaded 09/30/2005. Accessed January 6, 2007.

Digitage Web 2.0

Digitage Web 2.0,
originally uploaded by ocean.flynn.

Viewed 25, 070 times since December 5, 2006. Shared frequently through Creative Commons license. Updated 2012

There is a strong relationship between housing, healthy cities, healthy neighbourhoods and healthy individuals (Sawatsky and Stroick 2005).” Access to shelter is listed among the pre-requisites for health in the Ottawa Charter. Along with peace, adequate economic resources, food, a stable eco-system and sustainable resource use. These pre-requisites highlight “the inextricable links between social and economic conditions, the physical environment, individual lifestyles and health. These links provide the key to an holistic understanding of health which is central to the definition of health promotion (Ottawa Charter).”

affordable housing project, Ogden Road SE

Canada’s Gross National Product in 2010 was $1.600 trillion based on Statistics Canada data.

Calgary needs to control its urban sprawl which is among the worst in Canada. Higher density to limit the sprawl is crucial as Calgary anticipates to double its population over the next 50 years. Mayor Nenshi on Twitter argues that we need government housing for the really tough cases, nonprofit for some, and private sector for most. He is really promoting the concept of allowing secondary suites in Calgary neighbourhoods. It seems to me that the Attainable Housing initiatives are the only one on the block. What about economic diversity in every neighbourhood through a number of different initiatives not just secondary suites which are not ideal living situations? Calgary does not respond well enough to the need for rental housing for those earning less than the attainable homes initiatives target.

In some markets, the secondary market – the universe of basement apartments, apartments over storefronts, flats in single-and semi-detached homes and row houses, and rented condominiums – has acted as an important safety valve. But, it is a less stable source of supply, and so by itself cannot provide a long-term solution to the affordable housing shortage. (TD 2003).
Why is affordable housing located under Corporate Properties in the City of Calgary? When was it moved there?

Fact Sheet on Affordable Housing

    1. The federal government estimates that the cost of homelessness by 2007 had reached c. $4.5 – $6 billion annually. This includes costs of health care, crime and other social services (Laird, 2007: 5). Yet Canada’s Economic Action Plan for all kinds of affordable housing options only provides c. $500 million annually leaving most of the costs to the municipal level residential tax base. Canada’s Economic Action Plan provides $475 million, over two years; to build new rental housing for low-income seniors and persons with disabilities, and $850 million to provinces and territories over two years for the renovation and retrofit of existing provincially/territorially administered social housing. Overall, the Economic Action Plan includes $2 billion for the construction of new and the renovation of existing social housing, plus up to $2 billion in low-cost loans to municipalities for housing-related infrastructure. Canada’s Economic Action Plan builds on the Government of Canada’s commitment in 2008 of more than $1.9 billion, over five years, to improve and build new affordable housing and help the homeless. As part of this commitment the Affordable Housing Initiative (AHI) was extended for two years, bringing the total federal investment in housing under the AHI to $1.25 billion since its inception.
    2. Across Canada emergency shelter use is on the rise particularly in urban centers. By 2007 40,000 people every night including children used emergency temporary shelters (Federation of Canadian Municipalities 2007).
    3. Research suggests that on average moving a homeless person from an emergency shelter to stable housing saves taxpayers $9,000 a year (FCM 2011-04).
    4. On an annualized basis costs in existing responses, averaged across four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in 2005 were: Institutional responses (prison/detention and psychiatric hospitals: $66,000 to $120,000; Emergency shelters (cross section of youth, men’s women’s, family and victims of violence): $13,000 to $42,000; Supportive and transitional housing: $13,000 to $18,000; Affordable housing without supports (singles and family): $5,000 to $8,000 (Pomeroy 2005). In terms of public policy then “Where the cost advantage of the supportive and affordable housing options become meaningful is in addressing future demand, which will inevitably increase as populations continue to expand. Directing new investment to the lower cost (and arguably more effective) supportive option is likely to be more cost efficient than investing in new prisons, psychiatric hospitals and
      emergency shelters (Pomeroy 2005).”
    5. “Approximately 35,000 Calgary families are having difficulty affording adequate housing. Over the past ten years [2000-2010?], housing prices have increased 156 per cent, yet incomes have increased only 34 per cent over that same time (OLSH).”
    6. “There is currently a waiting list of more than 4,200 individuals and families with the Calgary Housing Company (CHC), Calgary’s leading affordable housing provider  (OLSH).”
    7. In 2004 the estimated cost of building was c. $1,890/m2 ($175/sq. ft) for concrete and $1,512/m2 ($140/ sq. ft) for wood. In 2011 the average cost per sq. ft is $125 – 155 sq ft. Unit sizes affordable housing: one-bedroom units from 500 sq. ft, two-bedroom units 700-800 sq. ft [800 sq. ft. @ $150 = $120, 000 x 36 units = $4 320 000] and three-bedroom units up to 1,000 sq. ft.
    8. Since 1993, the Provincial and Federal governments substantially reduced the capital funding of new affordable housing. This was part of a widespread decentralization, devolution and deregulation process intended to make housing markets more fairly competitive by eliminating state involvement at the same time cutting public costs. This did not work to advantage on a number of social issues such as affordable housing which has resulted in unintended and very costly consequences.
    9. There is a fiscal imbalance between municipal, provincial and the federal governments that jeopardizes the municipalities ability to respond to affordable housing issues. Cities like Calgary are highly and almost singularly dependent on property taxes (92.7%) as the primary source of funding (along with user fees and intergovernmental grants) to finance service provisions (T.D. ECONOMICS, 2004) such as affordable housing and social services. This is inherently flawed. There are many reasons why property tax revenues are inherently flawed as a source of funding for cities’growing needs and are a poor match for funding in the area of income redistribution services (more).
From Land Use Amendment Proposal
  1. The market is unable to deliver new rental stock. An astonishing 95% of the housing starts in the most recent five-year period have been in the ownership market, with rental construction accounting for only 5% of the market. Just 15 years ago, the proportion was 75% ownership and 25% rental.
  2. “A1996 Cambridge University study  that compared the housing systems and housing policies of 12 Western  nations found that, compared to all other countries, “Canada has an essentially free market approach to housing finance.  Owneroccupation has the advantage of not paying capital gains tax, whilst there is very little support for investment in the private rental sector, and tenants receive very little support in paying rents” (Hulchanski, 2002: 7, citing Freeman, Holmans, and Whitehead, 1996: n.p. cited in (Sawatsky and Stroick 2005).”
  3. Existing formal rental stock has been demolished or converted to condos.
  4. A buoyant economy in Calkgary bolstered in-migration causing a higher demand for rental housing.
  5. Alberta’s minimum wage is the second-lowest in Canada (BC has the lowest). Alberta’s minimum wage is $8.80 per hour. A total of 11 Canadian provinces or territories have a minimum wage rate higher then Alberta. Full time hourly minimum wage workers in Alberta earn a total of $352.00 per week and approximately $18,304.00 per year (based on a 8 hour days and a 260-day work year).
  6. Social Assistance rates did not increase between1993 and 2002
  7. In 2008, “as the nation headed into a brutal recession, there were just over 3 million Canadians living in poverty using the standard measure, Statistic Canada’s after-tax low-income cut-off (LICO) (more).”
  8. Approximately 1.27 million households (or 12.4 percent of Canadian households) live in housing that requires major repairs, is overcrowded, and/or costs more than 30 percent of household income (more).
  9. One in five Calgarians lived in poverty in 2002.
  10. Minimal new social housing was built for people who cannot afford market rents. 2002
  11. In Canada the federal, provincial and municipal governments have roles and responsibilities to address housing issues. But most of the responsibility has fallen to municipal governments to find and fund solutions.
  12. According to a 2003 KPMG study of corporations in the United States, quality of life indicators were important key business environment factors. It was also important that a city had low crime, good access to health facilities, access to affordable housing and educational facilities (more).


Further Reading

External Links
Federation of Canadian Municipalities http://www.fcm.ca/CMFiles/bcmcfinal1LND-3282008-4938.pdf
Policy Alternatives http://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/commentary/fast-facts-electing-house-canadians-or-not

Sawatsky and Stroick 2005
Ottawa Charter

With his incredibly gifted team MIT researcher Deb Roy wired up his house with videocameras to catch almost every moment of his son’s life five years ago. The team then parsed 90,000 hours of home video producing compelling images of data at work. One of the most memorable is the condensed brief awe-inspiring sound digitage of clips of his baby’s voice as he learns to produce the word “water” starting with the sound “gaaa.”

The brilliant visualizations of data dynamics are true art forms for a digital age.

Connectivity takes on a whole new meaning.


In the 199os an artist-musician and close friend originally from Haiti, Emmanuel Printemps, used to visit us regularly on Friday evenings and we would ask him to share his music with us and our other guests. We always requested one of his most moving, enchanting Creole songs, the powerful but sad story of the local butcher who lost his livelihood during the pig slaughter. As I follow the events in Haiti since the earthquake, I think of these precious friends from another time and place; they and their families are in our hearts and prayers.

Rural peasants in Haiti raised a very hardy breed of creole pigs which along with goats, chickens, and cattle served as a savings account. It was argued that from 1978 to 1982 about 1/3 of Haiti’s pigs became infected with the highly contagious African Swine Fever (ASF) in an epidemic that had spread along the Artibonite River shared with the Dominican Republic whose pigs had caught the virus from European sources. At first peasants were encouraged to slaughter their own pigs but then the Haitian government proceeded on a total eradication program that virtually wiped out what remained of the 1.2-million pig population by 1982. Farmers argued that they were not adequately compensated for their losses. The more robust creole pigs were replaced with a sentinel breed of U. S. pigs that were not adapted to Haiti’s ecosystem or market. For Haiti’s rural peasants the loss of income due to the virus and the government’s controversial eradication and repopulation programs led to further impoverishment and greater hardship, ultimately resulting in greater political instability.


In two webviral posts entitled “The Hate and the Quake: Rebuilding Haiti” by scholar, historian Sir Hilary Beckles of the University of the West Indies, (Beckles 2010-01-19) that are now circling the globe , we need to do some memory work before we conclude that Haitians are the architects of their own impoverishment.

In this seminal retelling of Haiti’s history,  (Beckles 2010-01-19) reminds us all that when Haiti provided freedom and the right of citizenship to any person of African descent who arrived on the shores of the newly formed Haitian republic (1805), the newly formed nation-state (1804) was strategically punished by Western countries, through economic isolation ( (Beckles 2010-01-19)).

From 1805 through 1825 Haiti was completely denied access to world trade, finance, and institutional development in “the most vicious example of national strangulation recorded in modern history ( (Beckles 2010-01-19)).”

In 1825 in an attempt to be a part of international markets, Haiti entered into negotiations with France which resulted in payment of a reparation fee of 150 million gold francs to be paid to France in return for national recognition. The installments were made from 1825 until 1922. From 1825-1900 alone this amounted to 70% of Haiti’s foreign exchange earnings. Beckles (2010-01-) argues that this merciless exploitation caused the Haitian economy to collapse  (Beckles 2010-01-19).

Furthermore, when Haiti’s coffee or sugar yields declined, the Haitian government had to borrow money from the United States at double the going interest rate in order to repay their punishing debt to the French government (Beckles 2010-01-19) .

From 1915-1934 the United States occupied Haiti under orders of President Woodrow Wilson in response to concerns that Haiti was unable to make its considerable loan payments to American banks to which Haiti was deeply in debt. The brutal U.S. occupation of Haiti caused problems that lasted long after 1934.

Webliography and Bibliography

Beckles, Hilary. 2010-01-19. “The Hate and the Quake: Rebuilding Haiti.” Posted by Sir Hilary Beckles on Jan 19th, 2010 and filed under Caribbean.

Beckles, Hilary. 2010-01-31. “The Hate and the Quake: Part 2” Sir Hilary Beckles, Contributor