Home

Mapping Money

Economic activity which mainly uses raw materials such as waterways, sea, forests and soils, increased to a (GWP) (Gross World Product): (purchasing power parity exchange rates) of $23 trillion by 2002; $51.48 trillion by 2004 and $59.38 trillion by 2005 and in 2008 (market exchange rates) it was $60.69 trillion. Yet global wealth does not translate into an increase in global well-being. Extremes of wealth and poverty have increased and according to TD Bank Financial Group Economists Drummond and Tulk (2006) wealth disparities will intensify. In Canada alone, the wealthiest or Ultra High New Worth (UHNW) families, who comprise only a fraction of Canada’s households, controlled almost half the investable assets: $1.3-trillion of $2.4-trillion in 2007. The “vast majority” of that $1.3-trillion held by UHNW with family offices Chevreau, Jonathan. 2007-05-14).

Mavericks, tycoons and risk-takers, (many of whom became the Ultra High Net Worth (UHNW) individuals and families – people capable of seeing resources as opportunities and knowing how to manage them to their own advantage, are western heroes. As long as enough of the resources trickled down, translating into a reasonable quality of life for most people in the form of jobs, assets, properties, vehicles, services and common recreation and parklands, we remained in a love-hate relationship with the the elite who had status, wealth and/or power. In 1992 Ulrich Beck described a world where the unintended consequences of the production of the former were no longer benefiting the latter. Certitude in access to fundamentals like clean air, water, sufficient food, housing was eroding in places that had never doubted before. And how the UHNW are becoming even more enriched by using raw materials such as waterways, sea, forests and soil, is troubling.

The Bruntland Commission reported (1987) that since 1977 public concern had been seized by the realization that crises once considered to be separate and therefore more containable – such as environmental crisis, development crisis, energy crisis, (by 2009 include food crisis, water crisis, poverty crisis, financial crisis) – were in fact, global. The dissolving of boundaries between the neat compartmentalization of the globe and its resources into nation states and sectors (energy, agriculture, trade), and within broad areas of concern (environment, economics, social) which made them once seem as one-by-one problems with solutions, were already understood to be much more far-reaching and complex. The one-world one-earth future was no longer a utopian dream or dystopian nightmare, just a pragmatic reality Our Common Future.

Risk Management: Shrinking Watersheds and Aquifers

The most vulnerable to social exclusion, the most impoverished have been hit harder than ever before and their numbers are growing. We have the technical and scientific capacity to link data from different sources and scales and to make this information widely available through Web 2.0 or the social media – crucial information regarding public policies, legal aspects, ethics, (moral mathematics?) etc of the depletion of aquifers, watersheds, and the re-routing of limited water resources. Who is producing reliable assessments of extremes of water wealth and poverty? Without access to balanced, objective information how can we expect to have the individual, political and institutional will to establish objective criterion for indexing water resource use and management? With information, can we hope for knowledge and dream of wisdom?

Groundwater Processes are Virtually Unknown

“Many of Canada’s freshwater resources are under stress because of increasing municipal and industrial use and impacts from human activities. To ensure protection of public health and the aquatic environment, Canadians need state-of-the-art treatment plants capable of removing a growing array of pollutants from wastewaters. This includes emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals disposed of in the sewage system, pathogens such as the Corona virus, and nutrients that feed unwanted and potentially toxic algae growth. In Alberta, groundwater processes are virtually unknown. The full long-term impacts of water use by the oil and gas industry are poorly understood, and future expansion of this industry will rely on improved, cost-effective water conservation and management practices. Dr. Tom Harding of the University of Calgary’s Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy does on research areas the recycling and reuse of water in oil and gas production (ISEEE).”

Is water a commodity or a human right?

According to T. Boone Pickens (b. 1919- ), the Texas oil tycoon, “he could be selling wind, water, natural gas, or uranium; it’s all a matter of supply and demand. “(Berfield 2008).” See also Mapping Blue Gold

According to the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (UNESCO) water was formally recognized as a human right for the first time when [they] adopted the ‘General Comment’ on the right to water, and described the State’s legal responsibility in fulfilling that right. “The human right to drinking water is fundamental to life and health. Sufficient and safe drinking water is a precondition for the realization of human rights.” (UNESCO 2002-11-27).

According to BBC News Online environment correspondent, Alex Kirby, who explored fears of an impending global water crisis in his 2004 article when 1/3 of the world’s population were already living in water-stressed countries, “We have to rethink how much water we really need if we are to learn how to share the Earth’s supply (Kirby 2004-10-19).”

According to The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). 1987.”Our Common Future.” “Water is essential for life, and an adequate water supply is a prerequisite for human and economic development. It hasbeen recognized that human behavior can have an impact both on water, and on the global ecosystem, and that there is a need to regulate that behavior in order to stabilize and sustain our future (WCED, 1987 cited in Sullivan 2002). Global water resources are limited, and only through a more sustainable approach to water management, and more equitable and ecologically sensitive strategies of water allocation and use, can we hope to achieve the international development targets for poverty reduction that have been set for 2015 (DFID, 2000).”

According to University of Alberta’s Dr. Bill Donahue, Alberta treats water ”as an inexhaustible resource […] The disconnect between supply and demand is not sustainable (Simon 2002-08-09)..”

“Water, an increasingly valuable multiple-use resource, is the source of continuing conflict in Canada and abroad. Its use and control presents significant challenges to governments, stakeholders, and citizens. Canadian Water Politics explores the nature of water use conflicts and the need for institutional designs and reforms to meet the governance challenges now and in the future. The editors present an overview of the properties of water, the nature of water uses, and the institutions that underpin water politics. Contributors highlight specific water policy concerns and conflicts in various parts of Canada and cover issues ranging from the Walkerton drinking water tragedy, water export policy, Great Lakes pollution, St Lawrence River shipping, Alberta irrigation and oil production, and fisheries management on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Canada – with its Great Lakes, three oceans, and border with the US – provides an ideal reference point for studying water use rivalries, conflicts, and governance. By exploring the controversies surrounding water management in Canada, Canadian Water Politics is an essential source for citizens, officials, academics and students, and contributes to our understanding of natural resource management and environmental policy at home and globally (Review of Sproule-Jones, Johns and Heinmiller 2008-11-20).”

Who’s Who

The Brundtland Commission, formally the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), created by the United Nations in 1983, to address growing concern “about the accelerating deterioration of the human environment and natural resources and the consequences of that deterioration for economic and social development.” In establishing the commission, the UN General Assembly recognized that environmental problems were global in nature and determined that it was in the common interest of all nations to establish policies for sustainable development. (WCED 1987). Their report entitled “One Common Future” recommended securing water availability for the needs of future generations. “On the development side, in terms of absolute numbers there are more hungry people in the world than ever before, and their numbers are increasing. So are the numbers who cannot read or write, the numbers without safe water or safe and sound homes, and the numbers short of woodfuel with which to cook and warm themselves. The gap between rich and poor nations is widening – not shrinking – and there is little prospect, given present trends and institutional arrangements, that this process will be reversed (WCED 1987:1).”

Copenhagen Climate Council is an Anti-Kyoto organisation which “works against most US government efforts to address climate change.” The self-defined ”global climate leaders” are in fact business leaders as CEOs of major global corporations, hoping to seize “seize the unique opportunity which the Copenhagen Summit 2009 offers to do something good for the global environment and at the same time do good business.” The U.N.’s post-Kyoto, post-2012 negotiations will be finalised in Copenhagen in 2009. Global business leaders issued “The Copenhagen Call” at the close of the World Business Summit on Climate Change on May 26 where CEOs discussed “how their firms can help solve the climate crisis through innovative business models, new partnerships, and the development of low-carbon technologies. They will send a strong message to the negotiating governments on how to remove barriers and create incentives for implementation of new solutions in a post-Kyoto framework.” The Climate Council is represented by Don Pearlman, an international anti-Kyoto lobbyist who was a paid adviser to the Saudi and Kuwaiti governments who followed the US line against Kyoto. Ms Dobriansky met Don Pearlman to “solicit [his] views as part of our dialogue with friends and allies (Vidal 2005-06-08).”

Maud Barlow is the National Chairperson of the Council of Canadians- A citizen’s watchdog organization with over 100,000 members. One of their ongoing campaigns is that water is a public trust which belongs to everyone. She is also the co-author of Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World’s Water.

Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 7th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco. wiki Bechtel was forced to back down on its efforts to taking control of the Cochabamba, Bolivia water supply and privatizing it in 2000 when Bolivian protesters were joined by overwhelming international support. Bechtel Corporation, one of the world’s largest engineering and construction services companies has been owned and operated by the Bechtel family since incorporating the company in 1945. It was founded by Warren A. Bechtel (1872 – 1933) in 1898. The current Bechtel CEO is Riley P. Bechtel, one of the richest men in the United States. wiki

Paula Dobriansky, US under-secretary of state for President George Bush’s administration between 2001 and 2004, sought the advice of anti-Kyoto Exxon executives on what climate change policies Exxon might find acceptable and thanking them for their active involvement in helping to determine climate change policy. These exchanges were revealed in the US State Department briefing papers, “documents, which emerged as Tony Blair visited the White House for discussions on climate change before next month’s G8 meeting [2005], reinforc[ing] widely-held suspicions of how close the company [Exxon] is to the administration and its role in helping to formulate US policy(Vidal 2005-06-08).”

Dr. Bill Donahue of the University of Alberta was quoted in the New York Times: Alberta treats water ”as an inexhaustible resource […] The disconnect between supply and demand is not sustainable (Simon 2002-08-09)..” Dr. Bill Donahue of the University of Alberta’s Environmental Research and Studies Centre said his research at Muriel Lake suggested that the oil companies’ appetite for water was having a long-term effect. Although heavy rains in 1997 replenished many other lakes in the area, but the level of Muriel Lake is falling again. Mr. Donahue said the addition of chemicals to water used in oil recovery and the fact that much of the recycled water ends up in deep underground reservoirs meant that ”ultimately, it is lost from the normal water cycle (Simon 2002-08-09)..” “The Muriel Lake Basin Management Society was formed in 1999 in response to these severe losses of water. In 2002, Dr. Bill Donahue, with the support of Dr. Dave Schindler, the Gordon Foundation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, and ERSC, began a study to determine the local and regional water budgets. Drs. Bill Donahue and Alex Wolfe also began a study of the history of water quality, biology, and climate change in Muriel Lake.” Limnologist Anne-Marie Anderson reported that the lake levels of Muriel Lake (northeast of Edmonton and close to the hub of oil sands activity, including Imperial’s Cold Lake operation) were monitored since 1967. The lake reached its maximum in 1974, a very wet year but since then water levels declined steadily, a drop in lake level of nearly 3 m in 2000 from 6.6 m in 1962. As a result of the drop in lake levels, shoreline width has increased considerably. This amounts to perhaps a 50 to 60% loss in the volume of water. There are also concerns that the decline in water levels is resulting in a deterioration of lake water quality and fishing. (Anderson 2000-04).

Exxon the US’s most valuable company valued at $379bn (£206bn) dominates The Global Climate Coalition GGC, and is the main anti-Kyoto US industry group. President Bush considered Exxon “among the companies most actively and prominently opposed to binding approaches [like Kyoto] to cut greenhouse gas emissions […] Paula Dobriansky, US under-secretary of state for President George Bush’s administration between 2001 and 2004, sought the advice of anti-Kyoto Exxon executives on what climate change policies Exxon might find acceptable and thanking them for their active involvement in helping to determine climate change policy. These exchanges were revealed in the US State Department briefing papers, “documents, which emerged as Tony Blair visited the White House for discussions on climate change before next month’s G8 meeting [2005], reinforc[ing] widely-held suspicions of how close the company [Exxon] is to the administration and its role in helping to formulate US policy(Vidal 2005-06-08).”

The Global Climate Coalition GGC, dominated by Exxon, is the main anti-Kyoto US industry group. President Bush considered Exxon “among the companies most actively and prominently opposed to binding approaches [like Kyoto] to cut greenhouse gas emissions(Vidal 2005-06-08).”

Oscar Olivera, was secretary of the Bolivian Federation of Factory Workers. In 2006 he addressed the World Development Movement conference held in Britain on the theme of “Whose Rules Rule.” He was a protest leader against water privatisation by the US-based multinational company Bechtel when Bechtel came to Cochabamba, Bolivia with the intention of taking control of the water supply and privatizing it in 2000. Olivera won the 2001 Goldman environment prize.

T. Boone Pickens (b. 1919- ) Pickens, the Texas oil tycoon, who made his fortune in oilpatch investments, is now planning on building the world’s largest wind farm in Texas. In 2008 he introduced “The Pickens Plan, [which called] for the United States to cut its dependence on foreign oil by more than one-third by making natural gas and wind power much bigger parts of America’s energy supply.” (CBC 2009-06-17.) He proposes that the private sector build thousands of wind turbines that could potentially supply one-fifth of electricity in the U.S. He claims wind power would replace natural gas in power generation; natural gas could then replace diesel and gasoline as a transportation and the U.S. could become free from its foreign oil dependency. He insists that Canadian oil is not considered to be “foreign.” ( “CBC 2008-06-20).”

Pickens who sees water as blue gold and already owns more of it than any other American. He thirsts to increase his water assets. “T. Boone Pickens […] owns more water than any other individual in the U.S. and is looking to control even more. He hopes to sell the water he already [had in 2008], some 65 billion gallons a year, to Dallas, transporting it over 250 miles, 11 counties, and about 650 tracts of private property. The electricity generated by an enormous wind farm he is setting up in the Panhandle would also flow along that corridor. As far as Pickens is concerned, he could be selling wind, water, natural gas, or uranium; it’s all a matter of supply and demand. “(Berfield 2008).” In June of 2009 he claimed that he was very interested in Alberta as a potential site for his giant wind farms if he could make a better deal in Alberta than in Texas. He is already priming the Alberta business community. While he has carefully massaged his media image to be tauted as environmentally friendly and he has generously gifted the University of Calgary, his methods are shrewd, buying what others see as useless until they realize how much control he has over their oil, water and/or energy supply. He is persistent, single-minded and worked for decades to one by one change relevant laws in his favour in the Canada River watershed in Texas to gain the control he needed. Pickens donated $2.25 million in 2006 to establish the Boone Pickens Centre for Neurological Science and Advanced Technologies at the the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, which was created by Pickens’ long-time friend Calgary Flames co-owner Harley Hotchkiss with a gift of $15 million in 2004. In June 2008 Pickens donated another $25 million to research at the Hotchkiss Brain Institute which is the largest donation ever given to the University of Calgary by a single person and the only philanthropic donation Pickens has made outside the U.S. Pickens, who has an estimated net worth of $3 billion, has given away $700 million from 2003 to 2008. Pickens lived in Calgary briefly in the 1960s working as a geologist ( “CBC 2008-06-20).”

T. Boone Pickens engineered a shrewd takeover of an 8 acres stretch of scrub-land near Amarillo, Roberts County, Texas. The acquisition of this land was “central to Pickens’ plan to create an agency to condemn property and sell tax-exempt bonds in the search for one of his other favorite commodities: water. Approval of the water district was all but certain as Texans voted [November 2007] in state and local elections. By law, only the two people who actually live on the eight acres will be allowed to vote: the manager of Pickens’ nearby Mesa Vista ranch and his wife. The other three owners, who will sit on the district’s board, all work for Pickens. Pickens “has pulled a shenanigan,” said Phillip Smith, a rancher who serves on a local water-conservation board. “He’s obtained the right of eminent domain like he was a big city. It’s supposed to be for the public good, not a private company.” Pickens and his allies say no shenanigans are involved. Once the district is created, the board will be able to issue tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of Pickens’ planned 328-mile, $2.2 billion pipeline to transport water from the Panhandle across the prairie to the suburbs of Dallas and San Antonio. If Pickens can’t find a buyer for the bonds or for his water – and he hasn’t yet – he might buy the bonds himself to jump-start the project, said his Dallas-based lawyer, Monty Humble of Vinson and Elkins. The board will spend about $110 million to buy the right-of-way for the pipeline, using the power of eminent domain to acquire property if necessary, Humble said. Still, Pickens faces obstacles. To help pay for construction, he plans to piggyback wind power on the water infrastructure. He plans wind farms on the ranchland and wants to run electricity cables along the right-of-way of Mesa’s water pipeline. All told, the wind and water project is expected to cost more than $10 billion. Pickens said he has about $100 million invested so far. “This is a $10 billion project,” he said in an interview. “It better be profitable.” Most of all, he needs a group of confirmed buyers for his water. That’s in part because of political resistance to his plan for acquiring water rights. Several Dallas-area water districts have refused to sign up. “We have real concerns about private control of water,” said Ken Kramer, director of the Texas Sierra Club. “Water is a resource, yet in some respects it is a commodity. It’s as essential to human life as air. That puts water in a different class.” John Spearman Jr., a Roberts County rancher and chairman of the Panhandle Groundwater Conservation District, is one of many local critics who contend that Pickens’ water play could upset conservation efforts and seeks to profit from shortages of a vital resource. “He has the legal authority to do it,” Spearman says. “We can’t stop him (Woellert 2007-11-07.”

Meera Karunananthan, water campaigner for The Council of Canadians opposes an expanded Alberta water market. “The water market system is absolutely not the solution. We consider water to be a human right. When you allocate according to the laws of the market, then you see water going to those who can pay the most. So it goes to the highest bidder.” She argues the government should instead create a hierarchy of water use, allocating to those who need it most — including the environment (Klaszus 2009-06-25).

The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), an international environmental treaty The Kyoto Accord was first negotiated in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, to “establish a legally binding international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions.” The objective was to stabilize and reconstruct “greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The Kyoto negotiations built upon the research of The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which predicted an average global rise in temperature of 1.4°C (2.5°F) to 5.8°C (10.4°F) between 1990 and 2100. The agreement finally came into force on 16 February 2005 when following ratification by Russia ratified it on 18 November 2004. As of 14 January 2009, 183 countries and the European Community ratified the agreement. The Kyoto Protocol include “commitments to reduce greenhouse gases that are legally binding; implementation to meet the Protocol objectives, to prepare policies and measures which reduce greenhouse gases; increasing absorption of these gases and use all mechanisms available, such as joint implementation, clean development mechanism and emissions trading; being rewarded with credits which allow more greenhouse gas emissions at home; minimizing impacts on developing countries by establishing an adaptation fund for climate change; accounting, reporting and review to ensure the integrity of the Protocol; compliance by establishing a compliance committee to enforce compliance with the commitments under the Protocol.” wiki

Vivendi water is the backbone of Vivendi company according to Maud Barlow, with c. 295,000 people working just in their water department alone. So these companies came onto the scene first in France interestingly enough because France flirted with the privatization of water first then moved over to Great Britain under Margaret Thatcher and then with the World Bank backing them have moved all through the third world where they are failing every single solitary place that they are operating.

Manthan Adhyayan Kendra centre, based in the Narmada Valley, was founded by Shripad Dharmadhikary in October 2001 to research, analyse and monitor water and energy issues. Manthan’s two major themes of work are (a) large dams, irrigation and hydropower and (b) Privatisation and commercialisation of water and power in India. Dharmadhikary was a full time activist of the Narmada Bachao Andolan for 12 years, the mass organisation of people affected by large dams on the Narmada river in India. He was closely associated with the World Commission on Dams from its inception to its follow up UNEP-Dams and Development Project. He has recently completed a study on hydropower dam building in the Himalayas for International Rivers titled Mountains of Concrete. Other publications include Unravelling Bhakra, the report of a three year study (2001-12 through 2004-12) led by him of the Bhakra Nangal project. This study claims to completely overturn many of the popular notions and perceptions associated with the Bhakra Nangal Project. Currently, Manthan is working on the issues and impacts of privatisation of the water sector in India, including a study of the Public Private Partnership (PPP) model that is being pushed in the water sector, and the implications – financial, economic, social, environmental and access – of large scale privatisation of hydropower.

Professor Cathy Ryan, Department of Geoscience and the BScEnvironmental Science Program, University of Calgary “has inspired inspired an undergraduate research programin Environmental Science, as part of which students work in partnership with government, private sector and non-governmental collaborators to collect and analyze original data. The results of these studies are reported back to community stakeholders at enthusiastically-attended open houses.Meanwhile, Professor Ryan’s active contributions to local watershed groups (among them, Friends of Fish Creek, Elbow River WatershedPartnership, Nose Creek Watershed Partnershipand the Bow River Basin Council) are further evi-dence of a community engagement that extends beyond the normal call of academic duties. As a Board Member of the Bow River Basin Councilfrom 2004 to 2008, she provided technical advice and was an invited speaker and presenter on research activities that informed local landuse policymaking.The value of Professor Ryan’s input, and a furthermeasure of her community service, is manifest infrequent invitations to participate in regional,municipal, provincial and national workshops. Beyond simply sharing research findings, these presentations help to guide groundwater man-agement initiatives, including a successful 2006 municipal bylaw proposal for Environmental Setbacks for the Bow and Elbow Rivers. Currently, Professor Ryan is also the Assistant Program Director for the Central American WaterResources Management Network, a training net-work designed to better enable Central American universities and local communities to protect their water resources. Professor Ryan has published on Central American hydrogeology and water quality, in addition to her research in Alberta.Professor Ryan’s research interests include thefate of agricultural, human, and industrial wastes in groundwater and surface water. An examination of the impact of Calgary waste water on theBow River led in turn to a part-time sabbatical appointment as a Senior Water Policy Advisor to the City of Calgary. Professor Ryan subsequently received the City of Calgary Environmental Achievement Award in June 2008. Professor Ryan received her BASc in Geological Engineering from Queen’s University and her MSc and PhD (1994) in Earth Sciences from the University of Waterloo. She is also an adjunct professor in the Schulich School of Engineering, and has been a member of the Faculty Association since 1997 (University of Calgary 2009 awards).”

World Bank “The initial hopes for privatisation were so high that donor spending on infrastructure fell in the expectation that the private sector would take up the slack. For example, World Bank lending for infrastructure investment declined by 50 per cent during 1993-2002, with much of this directed towards preparing firms for privatisation. In 2002, Bank lending for water and sanitation projects, in particular, was only 25 per cent of its annual average during 1993-97. At the same time, the World Bank increased its support for private investment in utilities through its International Finance Corporation (IFC) and its Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). While Bank lending to public electricity utilities dropped from about $2.9 billion in 1990 to only $824 million in 2001, its sector lending to private investors rose from $45 million to $687 million. Lending about $20 billion to water supply projects over the last 12 years, the World Bank has not only been a principal financier of privatisation, it has also increasingly made its loans conditional on local governments privatising their waterworks. The ICIJ’s study of 276 World Bank water supply loans from 1990 to 2002 showed that 30 per cent required privatisation – the majority in the last five years (Molina and Chowla 2008-09-26.“)

World Water Council 2009 Report

Water Poverty Index This paper provides discussion of ways in which an interdisciplinary approach can be
taken to produce an integrated assessment of water stress and scarcity, linking physical estimates of water availability with socioeconomic variables that reflect poverty, i.e., a Water Poverty Index to contribute to more equitable solutions for water allocation. A ‘‘Water Poverty Index’’ would enable progress toward development targets to be monitored, and water projects to be better targeted to meet the needs of the current generation, while securing water availability for the needsof future generations, as recommended in the Brundtland Report (WCED 1987). It is known that poor households often suffer from poor water provision, and this results in a significant loss of time and effort, especially for women. Sullivan provided a summary of different approaches to establish a Water Poverty Index by linking the physical and social sciences to address this issue (Sullivan, Caroline. 2002 “Calculating a Water Poverty Index.” World Development. 30:7: 1195–1210).”

Sir Richard Branson Founder and CEO, Virgin Group, (Ultra High Net Worth (UHNW) is on The Copenhagen Climate Council. He “has recently pledged all profits from his Virgin air and rail interests over the next 10 years to combating rising global temperatures. However, the estimated $3bn will be invested in Virgin Fuels. Much of the investment will focus on biofuels, an alternative to oil-based fuels made from plants. […] “…in our particular case we are putting all the profit we have got from our airline business into trying to develop clean fuels so that hopefully one day we can actually have fuels that we can fly our plains by, that will not do any damage to the environment (Branson).”

Selected Watersheds

Bow River watershed

The San Joaquin River watershed originates in Martha Lake (California) and winds through California for 530 km flowing into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and then San Francisco Bay. The basin area is 83,000 km2.

Selected Timeline of Events Related to Watersheds: Licensing Blue Gold or Managing a Human Right

1728 Mennonite brothers, the Bechtels, came to America in the early 1700s from Switzerland.

1846 German-born Heinrich Kreiser (aka Henry Miller) (Ultra High Net Worth (UHNW) immigrated to the United States arriving in California in 1850. The Miller and Lux company became the largest producer of cattle in California and one of the largest landowners in the United States, owning 1,400,000 acres (5,700 km2) directly and controlling nearly 22,000 square miles (57,000 km2) of cattle and farm land in California, Nevada, and Oregon. The Miller and Lux Corporation was headquartered in Los Banos, California, on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. Miller played a major role in the development of much of the San Joaquin Valley during the late 19th century.

early 1900s The Alberta agricultural irrigation industry acquired massive water licences. Since then they have relied on the first-in-time, first-in-right licensing system which gave priority to whoever got water licences first (Klaszus 2009-06-25).. In Alberta, water has been traditionally allocated on the “first-in-time, first-in-right” principle for both surface and ground water. The older the licence, the higher that user is on the priority list. This allows the owners of the first licenses issued to access the full amount of water issued before newer licensees have access, regardless of use. Furthermore, water licenses granted under this principle have no expiry date. However, licenses issued under the Water Act are now issued for a fixed period. In a review of Canadian Water Politics (2008) Chris McLaughlin, CEO of the Niagara Escarpment Foundation agreed with the book’s insightful comments that “the historical path dependency of current water allocation privileges – first-in-time, first-in-right – continues to favour entrenched agricultural, industrial and commercial interests who had their water claims institutionalized in law well before the value of “sustainability” was recognized. The reality inhibits institutional change, especially the adaptation of institutions to evolving water conflicts and other shifts social-ecological realities (McLaughlin 2009:31).”

1913 Oil tycoon, John D. Rockefeller, who became the world’s first billionaire, was the wealthiest person in the modern history of the world. Ultra High Net Worth (UHNW)

1930s The Bechtel Six Companies, a joint venture of construction companies built The Hoover Dam, named after President Herbert Hoover). This hydroelectric dam on the Colorado River was at that time the largest civil engineering project ever undertaken.

1940s Friant Dam was constructed as part of the federal Bureau of Reclamation’s Central Valley Project in the 1940s. Its purpose was to divert the waters of the San Joaquin to maximize their use to help people, both to irrigate crops and to provide groundwater recharge. Most of the waters of the San Joaquin River are diverted into canals so that the river remains dry for a 17 miles (27 km) except when flood control requires additional releases from the dam.

1950s Using raw materials from watersheds, seas, forests and soils 80% of the global industrial growth since the 1880s occurred since 1950. Industrial production grew more than fifty-fold from 1887-1987. There was already a $13 trillion world economy in 1987 Our Common Future.

1963-10-22 Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru opened the 740-feet high Bhakra multipurpose hydroelectric project claiming to ushering an era of agriculture development, Nehru had aptly declared Bhakra ‘the temple of modern India’.

1966-08 Helsinki Rules on the uses of the Waters of International Rivers. 1966-08. Adopted by the International Law Association at the 52nd conference, held at Helsinki. Report of the Committee on the Uses of the Waters of International Rivers. London: International Law Association (1967).

1969 The world’s first ministry of environment was established in Japan in 1969.

1970 Canada introduced its Ministry of the Environment.

1971 Ontario introduced its Ministry of the Environment.

Late 1970s Most OECD countries had a comprehensive framework of laws and regulations concerning waste and pollution.

1987 “State of the environment: National reports.” Nairobi: UNEP.

1984-1987 The World Commission on Environment and Development reported that between October 1984. and April 1987: “The drought-triggered, environment-development crisis in Africa peaked, putting 36 million people at risk, killing perhaps a million; A leak from a pesticides factory in Bhopal, India, killed more than 2,000 people and blinded and injured over 200,000 more; Liquid gas tanks exploded in Mexico City, killing 1,000 and leaving thousands more homeless; The Chernobyl nuclear reactor explosion sent nuclear fallout across Europe, increasing the risks of future human cancers; Agricultural chemicals, solvents, and mercury flowed into the Rhine River during a warehouse fire in Switzerland, killing millions of fish and threatening drinking water in the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands; An estimated 60 million people died of diarrhoeal diseases related to unsafe drinking water and malnutrition; most of the victims were children (WCED 1987).”

1987. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) published their report entitled “Our Common Future,” known as the Brundtland Report.

1987 Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Strategic Approaches to Freshwater Management

1989 “[The] government of Argentina embarked on a major privatization program, and water and sewage were not excluded (Orwin 1999-08).” This contract [was] terminated in 1999. Problems with quality and cost prompted the new government, which had been in opposition when the contract was negotiated, to take the action. The major partner in the consortium, Vivendi, sued the region for compensation ( Orwin 1999-08).”

1992-04 Three Gorges Dam, so enormous it would become the world’s biggest dam, sparked the biggest political debate in Communist China’s history in the National People’s Congress, China’s annual parliament. Nearly one-third voted against the dam or abstained – an unprecedented figure (Coonan 2006-03-17.

1992 The degree of water privatization in Canada and the United States was minimal. While more than half of the American water utilities were privately owned, and while cities such as Indianapolis and Atlanta were increasingly contracting out their water and sewage services, public utilities remained the norm in large cities; in 1992, they served 85 per cent of the U. S. population ( From Orwin 1999-08).

Early 1990s “[C]ritics in both the public and the private sector had questioned the appropriateness of a regulatory approach based on what was called “the old system of command and approaches such as economic instruments or voluntary measures. At the same time, governments were facing strong fiscal pressures to reduce the cost of their operations in order to stop the downward spiral of growing deficits and debt. These fiscal pressures were given ideological impetus by political parties that favored deregulation, downsizing and privatization (Ministry of the Environment research 2000).”

1992 Sullivan (1992) called for the political will and institutional acceptance so that individual countries would be enable to produce their own integrated assessments of water poverty. She recommended the use of participatory action research at the community level to involve and educate local people in terms of their water needs enabling them to better understand, communicate and negotiate with policy makers. “By providing information about household welfare, and water stress at the household and community level, this locally generated data can form the core of the Water Poverty Index (WPI).

1993 “The initial hopes for privatisation were so high that donor spending on infrastructure fell in the expectation that the private sector would take up the slack. For example, World Bank lending for infrastructure investment declined by 50 per cent during 1993-2002, with much of this directed towards preparing firms for privatisation. In 2002, Bank lending for water and sanitation projects, in particular, was only 25 per cent of its annual average during 1993-97. At the same time, the World Bank increased its support for private investment in utilities through its International Finance Corporation (IFC) and its Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). While Bank lending to public electricity utilities dropped from about $2.9 billion in 1990 to only $824 million in 2001, its sector lending to private investors rose from $45 million to $687 million. Lending about $20 billion to water supply projects over the last 12 years, the World Bank has not only been a principal financier of privatisation, it has also increasingly made its loans conditional on local governments privatising their waterworks. The ICIJ’s study of 276 World Bank water supply loans from 1990 to 2002 showed that 30 per cent required privatisation – the majority in the last five years (Molina and Chowla 2008-09-26.“)

1994 Ontario passed the Environmental Bill of Rights.

1994 In Ecuador the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) giving a grant to the government to set up the necessary reforms of pricing and regulatory procedures to encourage further privatization in the water and sewage sector. By 1999 The government of Ecuador planned on privatizing all water utilities, for the sake of financing further investment ( Orwin 1999-08).

1995-06 Mike Harris as Premier of Ontario , declared a “Common Sense Revolution” in which he announced that Ontario was “open for business” promised to cut red tape and get government (particularly the Environment ministry) “out of the face” of business. Over the next two years, the budget of Moe was cut nearly 50% and the staff was reduced by more than 40% . The impact of these cuts on the capacity of Moe to serve the public interest in relation to the taro operations was cited in print media coverage of the controversy (Ministry of the Environment (MOE) research 2000).”

1995-11 The World Bank offered large loans to Bogota, Columbia to convert the dysfunctional municipal monopoly into a privatized utility.

Postel, S. L. (1996). Dividing the waters: food security, ecosystem health, and the new policies of scarcity. Worldwatch Paper No. 132, P29. Washington, DC:
Worldwatch Institute.

1996-12 The government of Chili “introduced a bill to fully privatize state-run water works, the first such legislation in South America. It faced strong opposition even within the ruling coalition but the bill was passed with some compromises, including a stipulation that the government must maintain 35 per cent equity, with some of the remainder being owned by the company employees. In April 1997, the government announced its intention to privatize wastewater treatment as well. The privatization package was finally approved in January 1998, and 55 per cent of the utilities involved were expected to be privatized by March 1999. ( From Orwin 1999-08).

1997-03 The 1st World Water Forum was held in Marrakech, Morocco.

1997-07 La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia “turned their water and sewerage systems over to the French company Lyonnaise des Eaux in July 1997, despite large protests and agitations by the opposition, which periodically paralysed both municipalities. Interestingly, the coalition in favour of the agreement included not only the governments and the water companies but the labor unions as well, who helped ensure the completion of the process. Lyonnaise des Eaux own[ed] 34 per cent of the new company, while a combination of Bolivian and Argentine directors own[ed] the rest ( Orwin 1999-08).”

1998 Postel, S. L. 1998. “Water for food production: will there be enough in 2025?” Biosciences. 28:629–637.

1998-09-17 Orwin’s report on the privatization of water reveals his enthusiasm for the privatization of water and sewage systems. Vivendi and Suez-Lyonnaise des Eaux joined to vie for the concession for Rio de Janeiro’s water and sewage systems. At that time some of Brazil’s municipal governments that own[ed] the water and sewage systems sought private sector help. Aguas de Limeira, a joint venture between the French conglomerate Lyonnaise des Eaux and Companhia Brasileira de Projectos e Obras, provided water and sanitation to the 250,000 people of the Sao Paulo suburb of Limeira. Degremont, Lyon built two water purification plants in Sao Paulo: one for Sao Miguel (population 700,000) and one for Novo Mondo (population 1,000,000) […] Vivendi acquired 30% shares in Sanepar, which serves seven million people in the state of Parana. ( Orwin 1999-08).”

1998 Author Shripad Dharmadhikary writes: “the Bank’s process of generating knowledge is flawed and exclusionary. It excludes common people, and their traditional expertise and knowledge. The Bank’s knowledge is frequently created by highly paid, often international, consultants, who have little knowledge of local conditions. The knowledge creation is mostly directed towards arriving at a pre-determined set of policies – privatisation and globalisation. This knowledge creation is often selective, in that information, evidence or experiences that do not support these pre-determined outcomes are ignored. The book is based on case studies of the Indian water sector review in 1998, the Bank-support Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (see Update 56), water privatisation in Delhi, and a project for water restructuring in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Dharmadhikary finds that “[the Bank’s] policies have cut people’s access to water, led to environmental destruction, resulted in displacement and destitution of people, stifled better options for water resource management, have had huge opportunity costs, and privileged corporate profits over social responsibility and equity.”

1999 “In Canada, virtually all water and sewage systems [were] publicly owned and operated. However, privatization [was] very slowly getting off the ground in Ontario, where private companies serve[d] 500,000 people,(2) approximately 4.5 per cent of the provincial population. There [was] also some scattered private participation in Alberta and British Columbia, and privatization [was] being considered by two of the larger Maritime cities ( Orwin 1999-08).”

1999 The Inter-American Development Bank approved a $70-million loan to reform regulatory systems so as to encourage private sector involvement in Bolivia. Bolivia had begun “major restructuring of the water sector in 1991, which involved the transfer of powers from the central level to the municipal level ( Orwin 1999-08).”

1999 As the water crisis deepens countries are depleting groundwater resources accumulated over thousands of years. In India alone the water table dropped by as much as 3m in 1999. As groundwater is exploited, water tables in parts of China, India, West Asia, the former Soviet Union and the western United States were already dropping by 2004 according to a special 2004 report (Kirby 2004-10-19).

2000-03 The Second World Water Forum in The Hague, The Netherlands “generated a lot of debate on the Water Vision for the Future and the associated Framework for Action, dealing with the state and ownership of water resources, their development potential, management and financing models, and their impact on poverty, social, cultural and economic development and the environment. The Ministerial Declaration identifed meeting basic water needs, securing food supply, protecting ecosystems, sharing water resources, managing risks, valuing water and governing water wisely as the key challenges for our direct future. 15,000 people were involved in the Vision related discussions; there were 5,700 participants in the Forum; there were 114 ministers and official of 130 countries at the Ministerial Conference; 500 journalists; 32,500 visitors at the World Water Fair.”

2000 “The UN-backed World Commission on Water estimated in 2000 that an additional $100bn a year would be needed to tackle water scarcity worldwide (Kirby 2004-10-19).”

2000-04 Water Sciences Branch, Water Management Division, Alberta Environmental Service Limnologist Anne-Marie Anderson reported that the lake levels of Muriel Lake (northeast of Edmonton and close to the hub of oil sands activity, including Imperial’s Cold Lake operation) were monitored since 1967. The lake reached its maximum in 1974, a very wet year but since then water levels declined steadily, a drop in lake level of nearly 3 m in 2000 from 6.6 m in 1962. As a result of the drop in lake levels, shoreline width has increased considerably. This amounts to perhaps a 50 to 60% loss in the volume of water. There are also concerns that the decline in water levels is resulting in a deterioration of lake water quality and fishing. (Anderson 2000-04). Dr. Bill Donahue of the University of Alberta’s Environmental Research and Studies Centre said his research at Muriel Lake suggested that the oil companies’ appetite for water was having a long-term effect. Although heavy rains in 1997 replenished many other lakes in the area, but the level of Muriel Lake is falling again. Mr. Donahue said the addition of chemicals to water used in oil recovery and the fact that much of the recycled water ends up in deep underground reservoirs meant that ”ultimately, it is lost from the normal water cycle (Simon 2002-08-09)..” “The Muriel Lake Basin Management Society was formed in 1999 in response to these severe losses of water. In 2002, Dr. Bill Donahue, with the support of Dr. Dave Schindler, the Gordon Foundation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada, and ERSC, began a study to determine the local and regional water budgets. Drs. Bill Donahue and Alex Wolfe also began a study of the history of water quality, biology, and climate change in Muriel Lake.”

2000-03 Goals set forth at the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in New York.

2001 The International Freshwater Conference was held in Bonn.

2002 The World Summit on Sustainable Development was held in Johannesburg.

2002-02-15 President Bush pledged to reduce “greenhouse gas intensity” by 18 % from 2002 to 2012. New York Times journalist Paul Krugman cautioned however that the algorithm to calculate “greenhouse gas intensity” divides “greenhouse gas intensity” by the gross national product GDP which by most forecasts will expand by 30% from 2002 to 2012. This proposal then will allow a substantial increase in (mainly carbon dioxide, released by burning fossil fuels) that cause global warming. Krugman argued that the Bush administration exaggerated the economic costs such as the destruction of millions of jobs if the Kyoto Protocol’s environmental regulations were implemented. In 2001 Dick Cheney claimed that environmental rules had caused a shortage of refining capacity.(Krugman 2002-02-15)

2002-08-09 Western Canada had its worst drought in decades and environmentalists, farming groups and others called for tighter control of the oil industry. New York Times Business journalist claimed that Alberta’s oil companies use nearly half as much water as the million people in Alberta’s commercial center, Calgary. […] The energy industry makes up about a quarter of Alberta’s economy. Processes of extracting oil from conventional wells and from oil sands are water-intensive: c. 10 barrels of water are needed to extract one barrel of oil. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers claimed that about 55% of Alberta’s oil output, totaling 1.55m barrels a day, is now brought to the surface with the help of enhanced water-assisted methods. The water used in the oil sands “ends up in deep underground reservoirs meant that ”ultimately, it is lost from the normal water cycle(Simon 2002-08-09).

2002-11-27 Water was formally recognized as a human right for the first time when the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted the ‘General Comment’ on the right to water, and described the State’s legal responsibility in fulfilling that right. “The human right to drinking water is fundamental to life and health. Sufficient and safe drinking water is a precondition for the realization of human rights.” (UNESCO 2002-11-27).

2003-03 The 3rd World Water Forum held in Kyoto, Shiga and Osaka, Japan “took the debate a step further also within the context of the new commitments of meeting the goals set forth at the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in New York (2000), the International Freshwater Conference in Bonn (2001) and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg (2002). The large number of participants ensured that a variety of stakeholders and opinions were represented aiming at accepting differences and finding a common way forward.” There were 24,000 participants, 1000 journalists and 130 ministers in attendance.

2004 A federal judge ruled the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in violation of California law for not letting enough water flow which has resulted in the depletion of the historic Chinook salmon population on the San Joaquin River which it is claimed, once supported the southernmost salmon run in North America.

2004-10-19 BBC News Online environment correspondent, Alex Kirby, explored fears of an impending global water crisis. In 2004 1/3 of the world’s population were already living in water-stressed countries. By 2025, this is expected to rise to two-thirds. His report includes some potential solutions including new technologies that could clean up polluted waters and so making more water useable, more efficient agricultural water-use practices, drought-resistant plants, collecting rainfall, dams, desalinisation. Many of these solutions would require huge quantities of affordable, useable energy sources which also poses an enormous challenge. Kirby concluded, “We have to rethink how much water we really need if we are to learn how to share the Earth’s supply (Kirby 2004-10-19).”

2005-02-16 The Kyoto Protocol climate change conference leading up to the Kyoto Accord was first debated in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, to “establish a legally binding international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions.” The objective was to stabilize and reconstruct “greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The Kyoto negotiations built upon the research of The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) which predicted an average global rise in temperature of 1.4°C (2.5°F) to 5.8°C (10.4°F) between 1990 and 2100. The agreement finally came into force on 16 February 2005 when following ratification by Russia ratified it on 18 November 2004. As of 14 January 2009, 183 countries and the European Community ratified the agreement. The Kyoto Protocol include “commitments to reduce greenhouse gases that are legally binding; implementation to meet the Protocol objectives, to prepare policies and measures which reduce greenhouse gases; increasing absorption of these gases and use all mechanisms available, such as joint implementation, clean development mechanism and emissions trading; being rewarded with credits which allow more greenhouse gas emissions at home; minimizing impacts on developing countries by establishing an adaptation fund for climate change; accounting, reporting and review to ensure the integrity of the Protocol; compliance by establishing a compliance committee to enforce compliance with the commitments under the Protocol.” wiki

2005-06-08 John Vidal, environment editor for the Guardian based on according to US State Department papers, claimed that pressure from ExxonMobil, the world’s most powerful oil company, and other industries, influenced President George Bush in his decision to not sign the Kyoto global warming treaty(Vidal 2005-06-08).

2005-06-09 BBC reported that Philip Cooney, Chief of Staff for the White House Council on Environmental Quality, “which helps devise and promote the administration’s policies on environmental issues […] removed or adjusted descriptions of climate research that had already been approved by government scientists.” According to the New York Times Cooney “made dozens of changes to reports issued in 2002 and 2003, and many appeared in final versions of major administration climate reports.” Rick Piltz formerly from the office of co-ordinates U. S. government climate research resigned and reported the watered down reports to the New York Times. Philip Cooney, a lawyer by training has no scientific education. He was a lobbyist at the American Petroleum Institute, the largest oil industry trade group. He is a lawyer by training, with no scientific background. (BBC 2005-06-09).

2006-03-22 The 4th World Water Forum was held in Mexico City with seven days of debates and exchanges. Close to 20,000 people from throughout the world participated in 206 working sessions where a total of 1600 local actions were presented. Participants included official representatives and delegates from 140 countries out of which 120 mayors and 150 legislators, 1395 journalists experts, NGOs, companies, civil society representatives were involved. The Ministerial Conference brought together 78 Ministers.

2006-03 Uruguay, Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador and other countries drafted a counter declaration at the 2006 World Water Forum when the official ministerial declaration did not include water as a human right (Karunananthan 2009-03-18).

2006-03 According to an article by (Coonan 2006-03-17, environmentalists viewed the 2006 completion of the Three Gorges dam on the Yangtze River in China, the world’s biggest, as a monstrous natural catastrophe. Between one to two two million people were moved because their homes were flooded by the rising water of the reservoir. Environmental activist and journalist Dai Qing, the most famous opponent of Three Gorges dam, wrote a book entitled Yangtze! Yangtze!, for which she was imprisoned for 10 months in a maximum security prison and faced with the treat of the death sentence. She opposed the dam because of the lack of public debate, the lack of independent analysis. “Further along the river, construction of Xiloudu dam has begun, which will be the third biggest in the world when it is finished. Three other dams are in the exploration stage near Xiloudu – including one that will flood the beautiful Tiger Leaping Gorge in Sichuan province. All four of these dams together will produce more electricity than the Three Gorges dam (Coonan 2006-03-17.”

2000 Oscar Olivera’s article in The Guardian described how the water wars began in Cochabamba, Bolivia when Bechtel, a large multinational, came there with the intention of taking control of the water supply and privatizing it in 2000.Olivera 2006-07-19.”

2006-08-31 The Alberta provincial government under Premier Stelmach closed southern Alberta river basins to new water licences when they realized they had over-allocated water. Some growing municipalities with junior licences began the long and laborious process of negotiating transfers water licenses from willing irrigators and other senior licensees (Klaszus 2009-06-25).. “Alberta Environment announced the province will no longer accept new water licence applications for the Bow, Oldman, and South Saskatchewan sub-basins. Water allocations may still be obtained through water allocation transfers. The newly minted water management plan, the first of its kind in Alberta, will ban new demands from the three rivers, which are part of the South Saskatchewan River basin that feeds water to Calgary, Red Deer, Lethbridge, Brooks and Medicine Hat (Alberta Water).”

2006-2009 According to Alberta Environment about 30 water licence transfers have occurred between junior and senior licensees since 2006 when Premier Stelmach closed southern Alberta river basins to new water licences (Klaszus 2009-06-25).

2007 The Province of Alberta’s budget showed a surplus of $8.5 billion. Alberta is the economic engine of Canada but it is also the country’s worst industrial greenhouse gas emitter. Calgary-based EnCana alone earned profits of $6.4 billion, a record-breaking sum. An energy war is predicted between Eastern and Western Canada (Kohler 2007-10-08).

2007-10-08 Journalist Kohler reviewed William Marsden’s (2007) book entitled em>Stupid to the Last Drop in which outlined the environmental threats posed by Alberta’s energy industry, claiming that the [province of Alberta were] going to be the “architects of their own destruction.” “Left unfettered, Alberta’s energy sector will, by the end of this century, transform the southern part of the province into a desert and its north into a treeless, toxic swamp. Driven both by global warming and oil and gas developments, temperatures in Alberta will soar by as much as eight degrees. The Athabasca River will slow to a trickle, parching the remainder of the province’s forests and encouraging them to burst into flame, generating vast quantities of CO2. (Kohler 2007-10-08).”

2007 Despite comprising only a fraction of Canada’s households, the wealthiest families control almost half the investable assets: $1.3-trillion of $2.4-trillion. The “vast majority” of that $1.3-trillion held by wealthy families is controlled by the decamillionaires. They are the ones with “family offices.” Tim Cestnick, of WaterStreet Family Wealth Counsel, set the threshold for High New Worth HNW as $5-million to $20-million in net worth and for Ultra High New Worth UHNW at $20-million-plus. Bederman classified households with $1-million to $5-million as “mass millionaires.” There were 335,000 such households in Canada in 2007. There were 60,000 “penta millionaires” (with net worths of $5-million to $10-million) and 20,000 decamillionaire households with more than $10-million in 2007. Despite comprising only a fraction of Canada’s households, the wealthiest families control almost half the investable assets: $1.3-trillion of $2.4-trillion. The “vast majority” of that $1.3-trillion held by wealthy families is controlled by the decamillionaires. They are the ones with “family offices “Chevreau, Jonathan. 2007-05-14).

2007-10-03 Funded by a $30 million grant from the Government of Alberta through Alberta Ingenuity, (whose President and CEO is Dr. Peter Hackett) the Alberta Water Research Institute (chaired by Dr. Lorne Taylor, the former Minister of Alberta Environment) claim they will fund innovative, practical water research that will “tackle some of Alberta’s most pressing water-related environmental issues, including habitat decline, biodiversity loss, water flow and water quality. [T]he research will involve a multi-disciplinary approach — including biologists, engineers, economists and other social scientists — to provide the knowledge water users, managers, industry, policy makers and consumers to help them make informed choices. [T]he Alberta Water Research Institute works in collaboration with The Alberta Energy Research Institute (AERI).” Their work focusses on Water Treatment and Recycling; Oilsands Tailings Treatment with water recycling; reducing water use in electrical power generation

2007-11-07 T. Boone Pickens engineered one of a shrewd takeover of an 8 acres stretch of scrub-land near Amarillo, Roberts County, Texas. The acquisition of this land was “central to Pickens’ plan to create an agency to condemn property and sell tax-exempt bonds in the search for one of his other favorite commodities: water. Approval of the water district was all but certain as Texans voted Tuesday in state and local elections. By law, only the two people who actually live on the eight acres will be allowed to vote: the manager of Pickens’ nearby Mesa Vista ranch and his wife. The other three owners, who will sit on the district’s board, all work for Pickens. Pickens “has pulled a shenanigan,” said Phillip Smith, a rancher who serves on a local water-conservation board. “He’s obtained the right of eminent domain like he was a big city. It’s supposed to be for the public good, not a private company.” Pickens and his allies say no shenanigans are involved. Once the district is created, the board will be able to issue tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of Pickens’ planned 328-mile, $2.2 billion pipeline to transport water from the Panhandle across the prairie to the suburbs of Dallas and San Antonio. If Pickens can’t find a buyer for the bonds or for his water – and he hasn’t yet – he might buy the bonds himself to jump-start the project, said his Dallas-based lawyer, Monty Humble of Vinson and Elkins. The board will spend about $110 million to buy the right-of-way for the pipeline, using the power of eminent domain to acquire property if necessary, Humble said. Still, Pickens faces obstacles. To help pay for construction, he plans to piggyback wind power on the water infrastructure. He plans wind farms on the ranchland and wants to run electricity cables along the right-of-way of Mesa’s water pipeline. All told, the wind and water project is expected to cost more than $10 billion. Pickens said he has about $100 million invested so far. “This is a $10 billion project,” he said in an interview. “It better be profitable.” Most of all, he needs a group of confirmed buyers for his water. That’s in part because of political resistance to his plan for acquiring water rights. Several Dallas-area water districts have refused to sign up. “We have real concerns about private control of water,” said Ken Kramer, director of the Texas Sierra Club. “Water is a resource, yet in some respects it is a commodity. It’s as essential to human life as air. That puts water in a different class.” John Spearman Jr., a Roberts County rancher and chairman of the Panhandle Groundwater Conservation District, is one of many local critics who contend that Pickens’ water play could upset conservation efforts and seeks to profit from shortages of a vital resource. “He has the legal authority to do it,” Spearman says. “We can’t stop him (Woellert 2007-11-07.”

2008-06-12 In 2008 he introduced “The Pickens Plan, [which called] for the United States to cut its dependence on foreign oil by more than one-third by making natural gas and wind power much bigger parts of America’s energy supply.” (CBC 2009-06-17.) “T. Boone Pickens […] owns more water than any other individual in the U.S. and is looking to control even more. He hopes to sell the water he already has, some 65 billion gallons a year, to Dallas, transporting it over 250 miles, 11 counties, and about 650 tracts of private property. The electricity generated by an enormous wind farm he is setting up in the Panhandle would also flow along that corridor. As far as Pickens is concerned, he could be selling wind, water, natural gas, or uranium; it’s all a matter of supply and demand. “(Berfield 2008).” Business Week

2008-05-08 The U.S. Senate committee gave its approval to restore a 240 km stretch of the dried-up San Joaquin River and the historic Chinook salmon run spawning area. The settlement agreement, supported by almost every member of the California congressional delegation, anticipated spending as much as $800 million U.S. with farmers paying c. $330 million, and the rest from California bonds and the federal government.

2008-06 T. Boone Pickens a Texas oil tycoon, who sees water as blue gold and already owns more of it than any other American. He thirsts to increase his water assets and he is now showing a great interest in Alberta. While he has carefully massaged his media image to be tauted as environmentally friendly and he has generously gifted the University of Calgary, his methods are shrewd, buying what others see as useless until they realize how much control he has over their water supply. He is persistent and worked for decades to change laws in his favour in the Canada River watershed in Texas. Pickens donated $2.25 million in 2006 to establish the Boone Pickens Centre for Neurological Science and Advanced Technologies at the the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, which was created by Pickens’ long-time friend Calgary Flames co-owner Harley Hotchkiss with a gift of $15 million in 2004. In June 2008 Pickens donated another $25 million to research at the Hotchkiss Brain Institute which is the largest donation ever given to the University of Calgary by a single person and the only philanthropic donation Pickens has made outside the U.S. Pickens, who has an estimated net worth of $3 billion, has given away $700 million from 2003 to 2008. Pickens lived in Calgary briefly in the 1960s working as a geologist ( “CBC 2008-06-20).”

2008-09-26 Molina and Chowla argued that the World Bank has been a principal financier of privatisation and has increasingly made its loans conditional on local governments privatising their waterworks. The ICIJ’s study of 276 World Bank water supply loans from 1990 to 2002 showed that 30 per cent required privatisation – the majority in the last five years (Molina and Chowla 2008-09-26.“). The initial hopes for privatisation have faded as governments work towards de-privatization of water services (Molina and Chowla 2008-09-26.“)

2009-03-18The Council of Canadians, Our Water Commons, Food and Water Watch and other organizations held a panel at the official World Water Forum to launch a report highlighting success stories of communities working to protect the water commons through a communitarian approach to water management and calling for the recognition of water as a human right.Karunananthan 2009-03-18. .”

2009-03-16 to 2009-03-22 The world’s biggest water-related event, with over 25,000 participants, the Fifth World Water Forum was held in Istanbul, Turkey on the theme of “Bridging Divides for Water.”

2009-06 Jim Webber, general manager of the Western Irrigation District wants the province to respect the first-in-time, first-in-right licensing system to prevent an economic disaster for the 400+ farms east of Calgary and a handful of communities, including Strathmore (Klaszus 2009-06-25).

2009-03-29 The United States Congress appropriated $88 million to help fund the restoring of salmon spawning grounds as part of a bill providing wilderness protection to more than 2 millions acres in nine states.

2009-06-29 In California the debate has become increasingly polarized between agriculture and environmental interests over the distribution of water in the face of a three year drought that has left 450,000 acres unplanted in California as well as causing the third collapse of the salmon industry as the San Joaquin River spawning grounds dried up. (In 2004 a federal judge ruled the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in violation of California law for not letting enough water flow which has resulted in the depletion of the historic Chinook salmon population on the San Joaquin River which it is claimed, once supported the southernmost salmon run in North America. ) In Fresno County alone, normally the US most important agriculture county, farmers cannot plant in 262,000 acres because of a lack of water.Cone 2009-06-29).

CBC. 2009-06-17. “Texas oil billionaire eyes Alberta wind power.”

Notes

1. March 22nd is World Water Day

2. Since moving to Calgary, Alberta we have been following our source of city water. The Bow Glacier was stunningly beautiful last August. But like glaciers worldwide it is receding. The Elbow River which also flows through Calgary was very high this year even though much of Alberta’s farmland was experiencing a devastating drought. We’ve installed rainbarrels, planted drought-resistance perennials, overseeded our water-thirsty Kentucky grass with Sheep’s Fescue and generally tried to be more water wise, I am following water stories. Alberta has four major rivers tha drain most of the province: 1. The Peace and 2. Athabaska rivers drain the northern half of Alberta with their waters joining water from Lake Athabaska to form Alberta’s largest river, the Slave River, which flows into the Northwest Territories and on to the Arctic Ocean; 3. The North Saskatchewan River winds through the foothills and parkland of central Alberta. 4. The South Saskatchewan River, which is fed by three rivers that arise in the mountains, makes it way through dry farmland and prairie. The North and South Saskatchewan rivers join in the province of Saskatchewan and become the Nelson-Churchill system, and their waters eventually reach Hudson Bay There is also the smaller Beaver River, which flows through the heart of the Lakeland Region and then into the Churchill system and the Milk River, which passes briefly into Alberta
from Montana before returning south to flow finally to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico (Mitchell, Prepas and Crosby 1990:3) For a detailed map and more information visit Alberta Water

2. Moore Lake, c. 280 km northeast of Edmonton is a very popular recreational lake in Alberta’s Lakeland Region. Moore Lake is part of the Beaver Lake watershed. It is a headwater lake with outlets from the east shore into Hilda and Ethel Lakes and eventually into the Beaver River (which flows through the heart of the Lakeland Region and then into the Churchill system and the Milk River, which passes briefly into Alberta from Montana before returning south to flow finally to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico (Mitchell, Prepas and Crosby 1990:275).” “Moore Lake is underlain by the Muriel Lake Aquifer. In [1990] the principal water sources for regional water needs were the aquifers and not the lake. The largest water users in the area [were] the oil sands industries. Oil sands and petroleum and natural gas leases in the Moore drainage basin are held by several companies, including Esso Resources and Husky Oil. The oil sands permits allow the companies to test and set up drilling operations for subsurface oil deposits, including those under the lake surface. There are no signficant gas pools in the area. As a result of Alberta Environmental studies of the water resources in the Cold Lake-Beaver River basin in the early 1980s, a long-term plan for water resources management in the Cold Lake region was adopted by the government in 1985. Under the provisions of this plan, Moore Lake will not become a major water supply for the oil industry. Major industrial water users will be required to obtain their water from a pipeline from the North Saskatchewan River (Mitchell, Prepas and Crosby 1990:275).”

3. History of Moore Lake and the Beaver River. “Woodland Cree occupied the region when the fur traders first arrived. The Beaver River, to the south of Moore Lake, was part of a major fur trade route from Lac Isle-a-la-Crosse, Saskatchewan to the Athabaska River. The first fur-trading post in the area was Cold Lake House. It was established by the North West Company in 1781 on the Beaver River near the present-day hamlet of Beaver Crossing (Mitchell, Prepas and Crosby 1990:273).”.” “Moore Lake is underlain by the Muriel Lake Aquifer. In [1990] the principal water sources for regional water needs were the aquifers and not the lake. The largest water users in the area [were] the oil sands industries. Oil sands and petroleum and natural gas leases in the Moore drainage basin are held by several companies, including Esso Resources and Husky Oil. The oil sands permits allow the companies to test and set up drilling operations for subsurface oil deposits, including those under the lake surface. There are no signficant gas pools in the area. As a result of Alberta Environmental studies of the water resources in the Cold Lake-Beaver River basin in the early 1980s, a long-term plan for water resources management in the Cold Lake region was adopted by the government in 1985. Under the provisions of this plan, Moore Lake will not become a major water supply for the oil industry. Major industrial water users will be required to obtain their water from a pipeline from the North Saskatchewan River (Mitchell, Prepas and Crosby 1990:275).”

4. For amusement I am also reading an entertaining science fiction called Watermind that begins with a foaming journey of nano technology from Alberta down the Milk River flowing down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico collecting toxic waste and data all along the way.

5. Western-style lifestyles and diets which are heavy on beef require much more water than healthier cereal or pulse-based diets (1 kg of grain-fed beef needs at least 15 cubic metres of water, while a 1 kg of cereals needs only up to three cubic metres). Pulse crops (including Dry beans, Kidney bean, haricot bean, pinto bean, navy bean, Lima bean, butter bean, Azuki bean, adzuki bean, Mung bean, golden gram, green gram, Black gram, Urad, Scarlet runner bean, Dry peas, Garden pea, Chickpea, Garbanzo, Bengal gram Black-eyed pea, blackeye bean, Lentil) commonly consumed with grain, provide a complete protein diet. Pulses are 20 to 25% protein by weight, which is double the protein content of wheat and three times that of rice. Pulses are sometimes called “poor man’s meat”. Pulses are the most important dietary predictor of survival in older people. In the Seven Countries Study legume consumption was highly correlated with a reduced mortality from coronary heart disease.

6. This Google Map below (a work in progress) traces some of the areas of concern regarding our watersheds where substantial control concentration of access, rights and strategic assets are quietly being acquired by individuals or individual families. The most troubling of these includes T. Boone Pickens who sees water as blue gold and already owns more of it than any other American. He thirsts to increase his water assets and he is now showing a great interest in Alberta. While he has carefully massaged his media image to be tauted as environmentally friendly and he has generously gifted the University of Calgary, his methods are shrewd, buying what others see as useless until they realize how much control he has over their water supply. He is persistent and worked for decades to change laws in his favour in the Canada River watershed in Texas.

7. Tim Cestnick, founder of WaterStreet Family Wealth Counsel, in 2007 set the threshold for High Net Worth HNW as $5-million to $20-million in net worth and for Ultra High Net Worth UHNW at $20-million-plus.

My Google Map: Blue Gold

Selected Bibliography

Anderson, Anne-Marie. 2000-04. “An Evaluation of Changes in Water Quality of Muriel Lake.” Limnologist, Water Sciences Branch, Water Management Division, Environmental Service.

Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society.

Barlow, Maud; Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World’s Water.

Barlow, Maud. 2004-03. Maude Barlow, CBC Interview. CBC.

CBC. 2008-06-20. “Billionaire hands U of C unexpected $25M gift.”

Brownsey, Keith. “Enough for Everyone: Policy Fragmentation and Water Institutions in Alberta” in Sproule-Jones, Mark; Johns, Carolyn; Heinmiller, B. Timothy. 2008-11-20. Canadian Water Politics: Conflicts and Institutions. McGill-Queen’s University Press. pp. 133-156.

CBC. 2009-06-17. “Texas oil billionaire eyes Alberta wind power.”

CBC. 2009-03-06. “Wind power: The global race to harness wind.”

Clarke, Tony; Barlow, Maude. The Battle for Water.

Cone, Tracie. AP. 2009-06-29. “Battle over water heats up in drought-stricken California.” USA Today.

Coonan, Clifford. 2006-03-17. “The dammed: Environmentalists watch and wait for opening of world’s largest dam.” The Independant.”

Dillon, Sam. 1998-01-28. “Mexico City sinking into depleted aquifer.”

Government of Ontario. 1998-03-09. “Government’s role in operation of water and sewage treatment systems to be reviewed.” Office of Privatization News Release. Toronto: Queen’s Park.

Helsinki Rules on the uses of the Waters of International Rivers. 1966-08. Adopted by the International Law Association at the 52nd conference, held at Helsinki. Report of the Committee on the Uses of the Waters of International Rivers. London: International Law Association (1967).

Idelovitch, Emanuel, and Ringskog, Klas. 1995-05. Private Sector Participation in Water Supply and Sanitation in Latin America. Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.

Kirby, Alex. 2004-10-19. “Water scarcity: A looming crisis?” BBC.

Klaszus, Jeremy. 2009-06-25.“Alberta poised to expand water market: Showdown looms as province reviews licensing system.” News.

Karunananthan, Meera. 2009-03-18. “Access to Sanitation Reserved for the VIPs at World Water Forum.” AlterNet.

Kohler, Nicholas. 2007-10-08. “Doomsday: Alberta stands accused: A huge fight between East and West — over the oil sands — is just starting.” Macleans.

Krugman, Paul. 2002-02-15. “Ersatz Climate Policy“. New York Times.

Marsden, William. 2007. Stupid to the Last Drop: How Alberta Is Bringing Environmental Armageddon to Canada (And Doesn’t Seem to Care).

McGillivray, Mark. 2005. Inequality, Poverty and Well-being. Helsinki, Finland. Palgrave Macmillan.

McLaughlin, Chris. 2009. “Instituting Change: Book Reviews.” Alternatives Journal. 35:34: 31.

Mitchell, Patricia ; Prepas, Ellie E.; Crosby, Jan M. Eds. 1990. Atlas of Alberta Lakes. University of Alberta Press.

Molina, Nuria; Chowla, Peter. 2008-09-26. “The World Bank and water privatisation: public money down the drain.”

Olivera, Oscar. 2006-07-19. “The voice of the people can dilute corporate power.” The Guardian.

Orwin, Alexander. 1999-08. “The Privatization of Water and Wastewater Utilities: An International Survey.” Environment Probe.

Postel, S. L. 1996. “Dividing the waters: food security, ecosystem health, and the new policies of scarcity.” Worldwatch Paper No. 132, P29. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute.

Postel, S. L. 1998. “Water for food production: will there be enough in 2025?” Biosciences. 28:629–637.

Sen, A. 1995. “Mortality as an indicator of economic success and failure.” Discussion paper 66. London School of Economics and Political Science.

Simon, Bernard. 2002-08-09. “Alberta Struggles to Balance Water Needs and Oil.New York Times.

Sproule-Jones, Mark; Johns, Carolyn; Heinmiller, B. Timothy. 2008-11-20. Canadian Water Politics: Conflicts and Institutions. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Sullivan, Caroline. 2002. (“Calculating a Water Poverty Index.”World Development. 30:7: 1195–1210.

Vidal, John. 2005-06-08. “Revealed – how oil giant influenced Bush“. The Guardian.

The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). 1987.”Our Common Future.” Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Woellert, Lorraine. 2007-11-07. “Pickens makes a multibillion-dollar water play: Pipeline would transport Panhandle water to big-city suburbs.” Bloomberg News.

Chevreau, Jonathan. 2007-05-14. “Truly Affluent Require Wider Type of Service.” Financial Post.

Bow River Basin

December 20, 2007


The Bow River Basin is fed by ouflow glaciers of the Wapta Icefield which rests along the Continental divide. Wapta Icefield’s glaciers the Bow Glacier (37 km northwest of Lake Louise) at Bow Lake (altitude 1920m 51°40′18″N 116°27′22″W) and the Lake Vulture Glacier, which feeds into Hector Lake (51°34’43.21″N 116°22’3.38″W), both feed into the Bow River. Bow Lake lies south of the Bow Summitt, east of the Waputik Range (views including Wapta Icefield, Bow Glacier, Bow Peak, Mount Thompson, Crowfoot Glacier and Crowfoot Mountain) and west of the Dolomite Pass, Dolomite Peak and Cirque Peak. Bow Lake is one of the lakes that line the Icefields Parkway in Banff National Park and Jasper National Park. Bow Lake is the closest lake to the headwaters of Bow River, and has a total area of 3.21 km².

The Bow River Basin runs through the Rocky Mountains from Bow Lake (51°40′18″N 116°27′22″W) to Lake Hector past Lake Louise, Banff (51°10’19.21″N 115°33’59.86″W), Seebee (51° 5’48.44″N 115° 3’51.19″W), Chief Hector Lake Nakoda Lodge and Conference Centre, Stoney Nation , Morley, (51° 9’43.60″N 114°50’55.68″W), Cochrane (51° 2’42.25″N 114° 3’47.48″W), Calgary (population 1,107,200 – 2006), Carseland, Arrowwood, Bassano (near Bow River), Bow City (50°25’59.03″N 112°13’39.55″W), Scandia, Rolling Hills and Ronalane where the Bow River joins the Oldman River join at “The Grand Forks” to form the South Saskatchewan River (R.J.W. Turner, GSC 2005-194 ). The Bow, Red Deer, and Oldman rivers are tributaries of the South Saskatchewan River. This family of rivers carries water from the Rocky Mountains across the dry southern prairies of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

The North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers meet east of Saskatoon then continue to merge with other rivers emptying into Hudson Bay.

Timeline

1850 End of the Little Ice Age

1850-1953 Bow Glacier retreated an estimated 1,100 meters (3,600 ft).

1994 Bow River Basin report

Calgary installed a state of the art sewage system

1980s In the 1980s the Wapta Icefield, on the Continental Divide in the British Columbia and Abertan Rockies covered an area of approximately 80 km² (30 miles²).

2005 Turner, R.J.W., Franklin, R.G., Grasby, S.E., and Nowlan, G.S. 2005. “Bow River Basin Waterscape.” Geological Survey of Canada. Miscellaneous Report 90, 2005.

Webliography and Bibliography

Bivouac.com. “Wapta Icefield.” Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia.

Turner, R.J.W., Franklin, R.G., Grasby, S.E., and Nowlan, G.S. 2005. “Bow River Basin Waterscape.” Geological Survey of Canada. Miscellaneous Report 90, 2005.

State of the Canadian Cryosphere. Peyto Glacier Case Study. Past Variability of Canadian Glaciers.

wikipedia

Tag cloud: hydrogeology; environmental geology; educational geology; watersheds; rivers; surface waters; lake water; reservoirs; groundwater; water utilization; water quality; groundwater circulation; groundwater flow; groundwater resources; groundwater discharge; groundwater regimes; groundwater movement; climate effects; climatic fluctuations; conservation; environmental impacts; environmental controls; hydrologic environment; environmental studies; urban planning; wildlife; pollution; resource management; pollution; resource management; Bow River basin; water cycle

Area: Bow River; Rocky Mountains; Rocky Mountain Foothills; Prairies; Bow Lake; Lake Louise; Banff; Canmore; Stoney Nakoda Reserve; Morley; Cochrane; Bragg Creek; Tsuu T’ina Reserve; Crossfield; Airdrie; Calgary; Longview; High River; Turner Valley; Black Diamond; Okotoks; Strathmore; Siksika Reserve; Gleichen; Cluny; Standard; Bassano; Brooks; Tilley; Vauxhall; Bow Island; South Saskatchewan River Rolling Hills (near Bow River)

Flynn-Burhoe Maureen. 2007. Bow River Basin. > Google Docs


How can a Canadian social scientist in 2007 set aside economic development, energy security, youth perspectives, mental and spiritual health issues to focus on climate change as it related to hunting, sea ice, and the maintenance of an Inuit [pre-contact?] way of life? What kind of questions were posed in encounters with “Inuit in their homes, in their offices, at the hotel, on the street, [. . .] on weekends as well as weekdays?” How much trust and intimacy can you develop in each community as you seek Inuit to gather impressions when the six-week enquiry is divided between tiny, remote towns, communities and hamlets like Nain in northern Labrador; Kuujjuaq in Nunavik; Iqaluit, Igloolik, Arctic Bay in Nunavut; Yellowknife, NWT and the Inuvialuit in western Arctic Ocean communities like Paulatuk and Tuktoyaktuk reached in twenty-five zigzag flights covering 24,000 kilometres? How does that put people in the picture in our studies of the Arctic? Where is the background context based on Inuit-initiated research? Where are the sources so a public policy researcher can follow through with questions arising from this article? Has this article and lecture by the same name helped in anyway to revisit the distorted history of the Inuit as called for in the Royal Commission on Aboriginal People (1996)? These are some of the questions in response to Griffiths’ (2007) article published in the Walrus magazine. 

 It is misleading to suggest that increased suicide will be a future unintended consequence of the destruction of the Inuit lifestyle without acknowledging the heart-rending on-going tragedy of youth suicide epidemic, with rates that are among the highest in the planet, that directly or indirectly touches every northern Inuit community as well as thousands of urban Inuit in the south. How can any social scientist claim a people-centred ethnography while skimming over key social issues and structional changes affecting Inuit lives such as land claims implementation and human rights concerns regarding access to housing, employment, health and education services (the early exit from schooling). Two or three well-edited and well-researched paragraphs could have briefly traced a critical Inuit social history to dismantle some of the commonly held myths about the north. Readers would have benefited from a more accurate thumbnail sketch of the complexity of Inuit today: linguistic disparities, Inuit governing bodies, local initiatives, the long history of meddling in Inuit affairs by successive waves of interlopers. At the end of the lecture did the assistant from PEI understand that Inuit do not live in igloos anymore and that there are Inuit hunters who are politically-saavy individuals with cellphones and computers who travel frequently to regional, national and international conferences. Did no Inuit in his travels mention the northerly creep of flora and fauna? Would Griffiths not have found both those who are deeply troubled, skeptical or even optimistic about climate change among Newfoundland fishers, PEI farmers, Alberta ranchers, First Nations hunters? Would isolationist southern fishers, farmers and ranchers not also be found to be ruled by immediacy, pragmatic and immediate in their responses to climate change? “As in the Arctic, local opinion tends to be conservative. Quite apart from the collapse of Canadian historical awareness and our ability to interrogate the future, opinion everywhere is presentist in its intent to keep things as they are (Griffiths 2007).” Did Griffiths manage to make meaningful any larger significance derived from local observations he gathered in six weeks?

“Inuit in particular may have something to tell us about civility as we extend it from the domain of human relations to that of nature at a time when the human condition is directly threatened by civilization (Griffiths 2007).”

“A crisis narrative is one that tells of impending disaster, explains why it is coming, and instructs the threatened in what to do. It is presented by others, familiar or foreign, who seek to persuade us of their view of our situation, and of our need to join promptly in the measures they recommend. But for those who already see themselves as put upon by unfamiliar or foreign others, the call to accept a crisis narrative is especially galling. A discourse of disaster that originates with others who are known to be dominant cannot but present a threat to our autonomy, to our ability to set our own priorities, to trust what we observe and experience in our everyday lives. This is what Louis Tapardjuk was talking about in Igloolik. Accepted, crisis narratives legitimate the authority and control of distant experts, officials, and decision-makers. They open the way to large-scale intrusions into our way of life (Griffiths 2007).”

Franklyn Griffiths, George Ignatieff Chair emeritus of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto and co-founder of the Arctic Council, “travelled from one end of Canada’s Arctic to the other — from northern Labrador to the mouth of the Mackenzie River — between late April and early June. Seeking out and gathering impressions in encounters with Inuit from Nain to Kuujjuaq and Iqaluit to Igloolik and Arctic Bay, and on out to Yellowknife, Inuvik, Tuktoyaktuk, and Paulatuk, I flew some 24,000 kilometres in twenty-five flights. His initial contacts were with the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK). [. . .] I saw Inuit in their homes, in their offices, at the hotel, on the street, wherever I could, on weekends as well as weekdays. Setting aside economic development, energy security, youth perspectives, public health including the mental and spiritual, and any number of other possible themes, I determined to centre on climate change as it related to hunting, sea ice, and the maintenance of an Inuit way of life (Griffiths 2007).”

James Lovelock (2006) in his fictional horror story of climate change, a sensationalist crisis narrative, The Revenge of Gaia, described a world that’s became so unbearably hot that almost all humanity was destroyed and the last remnants of humankind subsisted in the High Arctic where they were forced to relocate. It became so hot there would be camels in the Arctic.

Sheila Watt-Cloutier, “the former international chair of the Inuit Circumpolar Council, who is seeking to bring the US government before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. She and other Canadian and Alaskan Inuit claim that the Inuit way of life is being destroyed as a consequence of greenhouse gas emissions produced by the United States (Griffiths 2007).”

Inuvialuit in communities like Paulatuk and Tuktoyaktuk “are the most clearly menaced by foreseeable change, which could see average surface air temperature rise by as much as 6°C by the end of the century — about three times the expected global mean increase (Griffiths 2007).”

“[T]he Arctic is the world’s climate change barometer. Inuit are the mercury in that barometer. What is happening in the Arctic now will happen soon further south.” Inuit are adaptable and resourceful, she added. But she also foresaw “a time — well within the lifetime of my eight-year-old grandson — when environmental change will be so great that Inuit will no longer be able to maintain their hunting culture. Global warming has become the ultimate threat to Inuit culture and our survival as an indigenous people.” Speaking on her behalf to a meeting in New York, Mary Simon drew Watt-Cloutier’s message to a very fine point a couple of years earlier: “When we can no longer hunt on the sea ice and eat what we hunt, we will no longer exist as a people (Griffiths 2007).”

Kusugak’s (2006) Unikkaaqatigiit Putting the Human Face on Climate Change: Perspectives from Inuit in Canada publication refers to the fearful possibility of “having to completely reinvent what it means to be Inuit.”

Who’s Who

2000 Of all Inuit it was the Inuvialuit who first took climate change seriously, this with a path-breaking video co-produced with the International Institute for Sustainable Development and presented to Kyoto delegations at The Hague in 2000. Today, the Inuvialuit are planning for the relocation of coastal communities threatened by intense storm activity and rising sea levels (Griffiths 2007).”

2006 Kusugak, Jose. 2006. Unikkaaqatigiit Putting the Human Face on Climate Change: Perspectives from Inuit in Canada.

2007 Organized by the Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences and held six times a year, the Breakfast on the Hill Lecture Series brings together parliamentarians, government officials, the media and the general public to hear important research on pertinent issues. In this November 22nd lecture, Franklyn Griffiths, Professor Emeritus of Political Science and George Ignatieff Chair Emeritus of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto, presented his findings on climate change, the Inuit and Arctic sovereignty. Entitled “Camels in the Arctic?“, this lecture is based on research Griffiths did while traveling in the Arctic.

2007 Griffiths, Franklyn. 2007. “Camels in the Arctic?” Walrus Magazine. November 30.

Kusugak, Jose. 2006. Unikkaaqatigiit Putting the Human Face on Climate Change: Perspectives from Inuit in Canada.
Franklyn Griffiths is George Ignatieff Chair emeritus of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto. He helped establish the Arctic Council.

Jose Kusugak is a past president of the national Inuit organization, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami.

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK)

Webliography and Bibliography

Griffiths, Franklyn. 2007. “Camels in the Arctic?” Walrus Magazine. November 30.

Griffiths, Franklyn. 2007. “Camels in the Arctic?” Breakfast on the Hill Lecture Series. November 22. Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences.

http://cpac.ca/forms/index.asp?dsp=template&act=view3&pagetype=vod&lang=e&clipID=513

CC Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “Inuit Communities as the New DEW Line: Camels in the Arctic?” >> Google Docs. November 30, 2007.

CC Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “Inuit Communities as the New DEW Line: Camels in the Arctic?” >> papergirls. November 30, 2007.

post to del.icio.us.


As I track Speechless statistics I noticed a growing interest in content collected as background to my graduate studies on the role of memory work and the historical and ethical components of stories told about Inuit, that I had uploaded to Web 2.0 sites through the Creative Commons License 2.5. I will slowly update and maintain if interest continues. This was developed as complementary material to my teaching, learning and research and is not intended as a comprehensive timeline. Speechless has been visited c. 250 times a day over the last week with a total of 34,673 visits.
9000 BC Ice Age came to an end. Arctic climate warmed.
7000 BC Dogsleds used by Palaeo-Eskimo in northern Siberia?
3000 BC The Denbigh culture of western and northern Alaska dates as far back as this.
2500 BC Migration Theory: Paleao-Eskimos migrating across Arctic North America. (in McGhee, Robert)
2200 – 1500 BC Stable northern climate.
2000 BC Umingmak Palaeo-Eskimo site on Banks Island.
c.1700 BC Oldest known Early Palaeo-Eskimo portrait of a human, an ivory maskette found on Devon Island.
1800 BC Palaeo-Eskimos occupied most Arctic regions. Independence culture musk-ox hunters of the extreme Arctic regions.
2000 BC – 1 AD Worldwide environmental change. In the north: the first chill. Cooler summers.
2000 BC Cooler conditions set in North.
500 – 1 BC Early Dorset Tyara maskette found at Hudson Strait.
1 – 1500 Dorset culture.
1 – 600 AD Middle Dorset culture: Igloolik flying bear carving.
500s AD Legend: Irish monks in currachs sailed west and north?
800s AD Eric the Red and 1500 Icelanders travelled to Greenland’s southwest coast? The Norse landed in Labrador before
1000 AD and attempted to colonize along the coasts of Ungava, Baffin Island and Labrador. They were the first Europeans to reach the Canadian Arctic. (Hessell 1998:7) )
650 – 1250 AD Mediaeval Warm Period in Arctic North America.(McGhee 1997).
600 – 1300 AD Late Dorset culture, wand found on Bathurst Island.
1100 – 1700 AD Thule culture: bow-drill handle found near Arctic Bay, Baffin Island; swimming bird and birdwoman figurines found in the Eastern Arctic. (Illustration Hessel 1998:17)
c.1650 – 1840 AD Little Ice Age forced the Thule to break up into small, nomadic groups.
1576 ?Martin Frobisher, an uneducated pirate-mariner attempted to find the Northwest Passage. He encountered Inuit on Resolution Island. Five sailors jumped ship and became part of Inuit mythology. The homesick sailors tired of their adventure attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England. On his next trip to Baffin Island an Inuit hunter shot Frobisher in the buttocks with an arrow after Frobisher had lost a wrestling match?
1585 John Davis voyaged up Davis Strait.
1602 Henry Hudson travelled to the whaling grounds of Spitsbergen which became a source of great wealth to the British.
1616 Robert Bylot and William Baffin sailed to Hudson Bay. 1670 Hudson’s Bay Company newly formed is granted trade rights over all territory draining into Hudson Bay. The fur trade develops.
1749 The first trading was established at Richmond Gulf.
c. 1749 Trade of small stone carvings. The HBC began trading glass beads to the Caribou Inuit in the 18th century. Women used them to decorate parkas. Ivory cribbage boards with skrimshaw engravings (like the whalers) ere the most popular. (Hessel 1998:24)
1750s Moravian missionaries arrived in Labrador. (Hessell 1998:8)
1771 Moravian missionaries settled in Nain in northern Labrador heralding the beginning of the Historic Period. Well-crafted miniature carvings were traded with missionaries, whalers, explorers…
1770s – 1940s. The missionaries are said to have introduced the art of basketry to the Inuit (Watt 1980:13).
1771 Samuel Hearne of the HBC reached the Arctic coast at Coppermine.
1789 Alexander Mackenzie follows Mackenzie River to Beaufort Sea.
1880 British Crown transferred many of the Arctic Islands to Canada. These islands became part of the Territories. (Parker 1996:23)
1820. The “Hudson’s Bay Company opened a trading post called Great Whale River in 1820 on the site of today’s Kuujjuarapik. The main activities at the post were processing whale products of the commercial whale hunt and trading furs.” www
1821-3. D’Anglure (2002:205) stated that the British Naval Expedition (1821-3) led by Admiral Parry, which twice over-wintered in Foxe Basin, provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of the Inuit. Parry stayed in Igloolik over the second winter. Parry’s writings with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit everyday life (1824) and those of Lyon (1824) were widely read.
1822 William Parry’s expedition to Igloolik.
183? Captain George Back made the first descent of the Back River.
1830s – 1860s. A man named (Jimmy?) Fleming (b. 1830s?1860s?) remained behind when the whaling ship left the north. He was given an Inuktitut name and he married an Inuk. Jimmy Fleming was a traveler; Jimmy Fleming was Scottish or English more likely Scottish perhaps with prominent eyebrows like Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming. His son was Jimmy Ekoomiak Fleming (c.1865-1950s), Sarah Ekoomiak’s grandfather. Annie Weetaltuk, Johnny Weetaltuk’s cousin knew the story about the man called Fleming and she told William Ekomiak the story.
1850s – 1950s Christian missionaries spread throughout Arctic. 1860 – 1915 Second wave of contact. Whaling in Hudson Bay with foreign whalers: Scottish, American particularly in the Roes Welcome Sound.
1856 Two Anglican Church Missionary Society members working in the Hudsons’ Bay region, John Horden, at Moose Factory, and E. A. Watkins at Fort George, were producing material in syllabics for Inuit. Watkins noted in his diary of June 19, 1856, that an Inuit youth from Little Whale River wanted to learn syllabics very much so he worked with Watkins. Horden in Moose Factory and Watkins collaborated on producing some Bible selections in Inuktitut. Re: Sarah Ekoomiak’s story.
1861 Edward Belcher wrote an paper entitled ‘On the manufacture of works of art by the Esquimaux’ which is archived in the Department of Ethnography in the British Museum in London. See J. King Franks and Ethnography. This may be the first paper written on Inuit art., London, Department of Ethnography in the British Museum.http://pittweb.prm.ox.ac.uk/Kent/musantob/histmus5.html
1865 Pangnirtung has a long history associated with Scottish and American whaling. Whale oil made from animal fat was used as fuel. In 1865? petroleum was developed as fuel, replacing whale oil. Whaling had become became the largest industry in North America, with 20,000 American seamen out in a single whale-hunting from “… New England. P.(Houston, James. 1996:151).
1865 John Horden and Watkins met in London worked together to modify the Cree syllabic system to the Inuktitut language. The syllabic orthography was very easy to learn that and this enabled the Anglican Church to proselytize successfully over such a wide area of the Arctic. Inuit taught each other. With the assistance of well-travelled native assistants who worked with Peck, Bilby and Greenshield at Blacklead Island, and with Bilby and Fleming at Lake Harbour, a large number of Inuit who had never met a missionary nonetheless had access to the Bible and were able to read it in syllabics. Two of the best-known native assistants were Luke Kidlapik and Joseph Pudloo. As a boy Joseph Pudloo had learned syllabics in Reverend Fleming’ s senior class in Lake Harbour. Later he became Fleming’s sled driver, taking the missionary thousands of miles on visits to Inuit camps. After that he spent two years working with the Reverend B.P. Smith at Baker Lake, the first native assistant to work in a dialect markedly different from his own.
1865 Rawlings, Thomas The Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Their Past History and Future Prospects; Including Also British Columbia & Hudson’s Bay Territory; With a Map, and Suggestions in Reference to the True and Only Practicable Route from the Atlantic London Sampson Low, Son, and Marston 1865, first edition, octavo, xii, [1] -244 pp., 4 plates, large folding map, original flexible cloth covered boards, covers detached but present, scattered light foxing to text, else a good, clean copy. Early efforts of the explorer, geographer and navigator, Hudson’s Bay Co., the fur trade, Red River Settlement, Rocky Mountains, discovery of gold, railroads, etc. The plates include two early views of Victoria, British Columbia, one of St. Paul, Minnesota and a farm scene. Eberstadt 133:851; Decker-Soliday IV:483; Lande 1408; TPL 4442; Peel 206; Sabin 68006
1873 North-West Mounted Police.
1876 Reverend Peck established the first permanent Christian mission in Inuit territory at Little Whale River near Richmond Gulf.
1880 British Crown transferred many of the Arctic Islands to Canada. These islands became part of the Territories. (Parker 1996:23)
1880 The Indian Affairs Department was established. “Since Confederation, the responsibility for Indian Affairs and Northern Development rested with various government departments between 1873 and 1966. The minister of the Interior also held the position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs after the Indian Affairs Department was established in 1880.”
1880s – Whalers from San Francisco and Seattle whaled in the Beauford Sea. They wintered at Herschel Island. (Parker 1996:22) American whalers hunted in eastern Arctic. Greelandic Inuit hunted on Ellesmere Island (Tester 1993:14).
1882 An Anglican mission was established in Kujjuarapik in 1882 and a Catholic mission in 1890.  
1883 Regina was named as capital of the Northwest Territories. The railway reached Regina. (Parker 1996:23)
1883-4 Anthropologist Franz Boas, studies Inuit culture, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island.
1884 Reverend Peck established a mission at Fort Chimo, Kuujuak, to help Reverend Sam Stewart who established the second mission in Inuit territory.
1885? Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming (c.1885-1950s) was born? He died when he was 65? He became a Christian. He was not tall. Jimmie Ekoomiak loved children. He played with Sarah like a child would play. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was a fiddler and he taught his sons Charlie and Thomas. Thomas bought the fiddle from Eaton’s catalogue for $15. His father, a traveller, Jimmy Fleming (b. 1830s?1860s?) was Scottish or English more likely Scottish perhaps with prominent eyebrows like Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming.
1887-1905 Frederick Haultain, a Conservative, was premier of the Northwest Territories. Sir Wilfred Laurier was Prime Minister. Haultain was born in England and came to Canada when he was three. He discouraged party politics and believed in consensus (Parker 1996:25).
1888 The first Legislative Aseembly was held with 22 elected members. Arguments started over the control of the public purse. The Federal Government held the Advisory Council responsible for governmental expenditures without giving them full control over taxation and financial transfers. (Parker 1996:24),
1890s, early 1900s. The catechist Reverend Fleming traveled thousands of miles with Joseph Pudloo visiting Inuit camps, teaching syllabics along with their missionary work for the Anglican Church Missionary Society.
1893 Franz Boas’ went to Baffin Island and Northern British Columbia to gather ethnographic material for the 1893 Smithsonian’s World’s Columbian Exposition. There was an ethnographic exhibit including “Esquimaux snapping whips and in their kayaks…”
1896? Reverend Edmund Peck introduced syllabics as a written form of Inuktitut. His system was adapted from Reverend Evan’s syllabic system adopted by the Cree.
1898 Yukon was created as separate territory. Gold was discovered. (Parker 1996:25).
1900 Scottish mine owners open a mica and graphite mine near Lake Harbour and employed Inuit miners.
1901 Film clip of Inuit games and dogsleds performing at the Buffalo Exposition.
1902 A whaling ship captain, Comer purchased Igloolik Qingailisaq’s shaman’s coat. A photo of a replica of the coat illustrates the publication accompanying the film Atanarjuat. D’Anglure described Qingailisaq’s coat as the “most superbly decorated shaman’s coat.” “It is a woman’s coat, a replica of the one worn by an ijiraq female spirit that he encountered while hunting caribou in the back country. She became one of his helping spirits and he wore the coat to honour her. Its appearance calls to mind certain aspects of his encounter with the female spirit.” This coat is now in the American Museum of Natural History, New York (2002:217).
1903 Northwest Mounted Police (RCMP) detachments set up in Canadian Arctic.
1903-6 Roald Amundsen completes Northwest Passage?
1904? The artist remembered the names of many of the people involved. Joe Talirunili (1899-1976) from Povungnituk made numerous carvings and drawings referring to this migration. One of the drawings (c.1960-70) illustrated and described in Blodgett’s exhibition catalogue 1983:208) entitled “The People Takatak, Kinuajuak and Kanavalik includes a text which reads, “The people Takatak, Kinuajuak and Kanavalik on land were wondering if the canoe was carrying white people or Indians. They were scared because they never expected a boat in July. They thought they were near death when they heard someone shouting to them from the boat. This is what they heard: ‘We’re Eskimo, we’re not Indians or white people. We were caught in the ice but this is the first time we have seen land in a long time.’ Woman shouting is Aula (Myers, Joe Talirunili: 50). “Blodgett 1983) described the incident third hand, “According to Johnny Pov in the memories of Joe (Myers p.6), several travelling Inuit families became stranded on an ice pan after it broke away from the coast. Blown out to sea as the ice pan began to break into smaller and smaller pieces, the travellers, using the wood from their sleds and skins they had with them, made a makeshift umiak to carry them over the water back to the mainland. Crowded into their boat, the people, the young Joe in his mother’s parka among them, finally reached safety. In later life, when carving teh episode from his childhood, Talirunili could remember the names of all the people on the boat.
1905 Atagutaaluk survived starvation in 1905 near Pond Inlet. The shaman Palluq and his wife Tagurnaaq and Atuat from Igloolik and Repulse Bay found her near Tariuju, closer to Mittimatalik. (See Rose Iqallijuq 1998) who also described another case of survival cannibalism by Kaagat who was found near Igluligaaijuk.) Later Atagutaaluk married the shaman chief Ittuksarjuat. They lived in a qarmaq, a sod or stone house (D’Anglure 2002:222). Ittuksarjuat died in. See also 1950 Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13. “Ujarak: My sister Atuat knows this person. She knows the story very well. My sister [Atuat] was the adopted daughter of Palluq and [his wife] Tagurnaaq. Tagurnaaq and her husband could not have a baby of their own, so they adopted Atuat. My sister Atuat, who is also called IttukuSuk, was very young at that time, but she was aware of everything that happened. The family, Palluq, Tagurnaaq and Atuat were on their way to Mittimatalik when they found Ataguttaaluk. The family brought Ataguttaaluk to where there were other people and stayed there for some time. Then they set out to the Kivalliq area and stayed there for quite a while (Iqallijuq, Rose and Johanasi Ujarak 1998).” The Igloolik shaman Atuat died in Arctic Bay in 1976. She was the daughter of Ava and Urulu. According to d’Anglure (2002) Atuat was the last Inuit to have extensive tatoos (2002:220). Atuat did a drawing in Arctic Bay in 1964 “depicting the last major winter-solstice celebration (Tivaajut) which she attended circa 1910 at Igloolik. At the end of the festivities, shamans paired everyone up into new couples for one night (d’Anglure 2002:219).” See illustration in the 2002 publication which accompanies the film Atanarjuat. According to d’Anglure in the early 1920s there were eighty shamans in the greater Igloolik area which included North Baffin to Repulse Bay region. This included fourteen women. By the 1940s all had converted to Christianity. Thirty were still alive in the 1970s. Today their names are alive through their children (d’Anglure 2002:209). [I taught one of the descendents Tabitha Palluq through CITP. Her reaction to the showing of the film starvation was very moving.] Knud Rasmussen photographed shamans in 1921-2 expedition including Urulu, Atuat’s mother, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bayand three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211).
1905 Invention of plastic marks the end of the exploitation of the baleen whale by American and European whalers. The declining market for whale oil and baleen led to the aggressive development of the white fox fur trade by the HBC.
1905 D’Anglure (2002) described a photo of a flight of the shaman séance in 1905 among the Avilik people. The Avilik lived next to the Igloolik Inuit. “The shaman is tied from head to feet (as at the beginning of the legend of Atanarjuat) and gets ready to send his soul travelling (2002:212).” See also (Iqallijuq NAC 1998) “Iqallijuq: The first time he performed ilimmaqtuqtuq I did not hear why this was being done. The following year, I saw him ilimmaqtuqtuq again. We were living in Salliq. Aullannaaq and some other men had gone to Igluligaarjuk. They were overdue and we were starting to wonder if they were on their way back or if they had gotten lost. Makkik performed ilimmaqtuqtuq to find out how they were. He saw them from above. He told us the whole story after his retum. The group was ready to cross through at Aivilik to return to the island. No one was sick in the group and they were all alive and well, he said. The first time I saw this I was really too young to understand what was going on. I don’t recall where he had gone or what news the angakkuq had brought back.”
1905 Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick White of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was named Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. He made decisions unilaterally. He never once called together the Territorial Council. (Parker 1996:26),
1906 According to Rose Iqallijuq an Inuk and his wife survived starvation through cannibalism but only confessed when confronted by a shaman. Kaagat, who is buried at Iglulik Point, lived for a long time. (Iqallijuq 1998).
1906 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild was founded. This national organisation had its headquarters in Montreal.
1909 Admiral Robert Peary and Matthew … reach North Pole.
1909 Reveillon Freres, Paris established a fur trading post at Inukjuak. The HBC arrived in 1920. The HBC purchased the Reveillon Freres in 1930s.
1909 Anglican mission established at Lake Harbour.
1911 First permanent trading post in south Baffin was at Lake Harbour, in Keewatin it was at Chesterfield Inlet.
1912 Burland (1973:92) referred to a famous event which took place in 1912 about an overcrowded whale boat. Burland makes constant errors so she is unreliable as a source.
1912 The boundaries of the Northwest Territories were set at the boundaries in existence in 1992. (Parker 1996:26),
1912 The northern boundary of Manitoba was extended to the 60th parallel. (Parker 1996:26),
1912 Quebec was expanded to include Arctic Quebec. (Parker 1996:26),
1913 Cape Dorset’s trading post was established.
1913 -1918 Canadian Arctic Expedition: Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Diamond Jenness.
1913 Edward Beauclerk Maurice (1913-2003) was born September 10th or 16th? In Claredon, Somerset
1914 Charlie Ekomiak 1914-1960s?) was born. He was the father of Sarah Ekoomiak (b.1933), Annie (b.1935), Maggie (b.1937), Sam (b.1939), Emily (b.1941), William Ekomiak (b.1943) Charlie Ekomiak married Lucie Menarik when he was 18 years old c. 1932. After Lucie Menarik died in 1944 Charlie remarried. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was a fiddler and he taught his sons Charlie and Thomas. Thomas bought the fiddle from Eaton’s catalogue for $15.,
1916 – 1926 HBC operated a trading post at Okpiktooyuk near present day Baker Lake.
1918 Oil discovered at Norman Wells (Parker 1996:26).
1919 W.W. Cory became Commissioner of the Northwest Territories (Parker 1996:26),
1920s early According to d’Anglure in the early 1920s there were eighty shamans in the greater Igloolik area which included North Baffin to Repulse Bay region. This included fourteen women. By the 1940s all had converted to Christianity. Thirty were still alive in the 1970s. Today their names are alive through their children (d’Anglure 2002:209).
1921 Federal government appointed a Territorial Council of six members. (Parker 1996:26),
1921 – 1924. Danish explorer, Rasmussen’s Fifth Thule Expedition was undertaken crossing the Canadian Arctic much of it in dogsled. For some remote groups of Inuit, like the Utkuhikhalingmiut, he represented the first white contact. Listen to CBC radio interview with Mame Jackson to hear the voice of Jessie Oonark describing this encounter when she was in her teens. Along the way Rasmussen photographed Urulu, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bay. He also photographed and worked with three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211).
1921-4 Knud Rasmussen photographed Urulu, a woman shaman from the area of Igloolik/Repulse Bay. He also photographed and worked with three shaman brothers from Igloolik/Repulse Bay Ivaluarjuak, Ava and Pilaskapsi. See d’Anglure (2002:211).
1922 Robert Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1922) was the first documentary film ever made. In it Nanook a respected Inuk hunter demonstrated techniques of the seal (nasiq) hunt while joking with the camera crew. 
1923. Mariano Aupilardjuk was born. He grew up near Nattiligaarjuk, Committee Bay where there was lots of ‘old ice’ and therefore Qallupilluq (Ernerk 1996)] Nunavut’s commissioner, Peter Irniq, has a special respect for Aupilarduk, because their families lived together in an outpost camp near Repulse Bay when Irniq was a child (Rideout 2001a). Mariano Aupiliardjuk was honoured with an Aboriginal Achievement Award in 2001 for his contributions as a bridge between generations, Inuit governance, local residents, on how to use IQ in modern society. In local Rankin Inlet elementary and secondary schools, at NAC, across Canada, advises RCMP, facilitates community and pan-territorial healing, works with youth to help them acquire land skills.
1924 Anthropologist Diamond Jenness received tiny ivory artifacts from Cape Dorset area. With this archaeological evidence the existence of the Dorset culture (800 BC – ) was established. c.
1924. Amendment to Indian Act (14-15 Geo. V Chap. 47) bringing Eskimos under the responsibility of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs.
1924. Government interested in buying totems. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (of England) requested the preservation of totem poles in British Columbia. In a response letter to Doyle, Chas Stewart of the Dept. of Indian Affairs wrote that “.the Government has been commissioned to take up the matter, perhaps to buy out the totem poles in the Skeena River.” File number: Public Archives Indian Affairs. (RG10, Volume 4086 file 507,787-2). http://www.haislatotem.org/chronology/chron_main.html
1926 – 1927 Anglican and Catholic Missions open in Baker Lake.
1926. Thirteen Inuit starved to death at an outpost camp in Admiralty Inlet (Tester 1993:21).
1929. Pitchblende was discovered at Port Radium on the Great Bear Lake. Gilbert Labine began working his mine in 1930. This was the first major mining activity in the Northwest Territories. It produced radium and then uranium. (Parker 1996:26).
1930s. Americans were self-consciously constructing their identity as separate from Europe (Leclerc 1992:36-8).
1930s. Reverend Nelson was the minister in the area before the minister came who taught Jimmie Fleming.
1930s-1960s. “The use of the term ‘colony’ may sound odd, but it originated with civil servants who entered public service in the 1930s and felt they were doing work similar to the pioneering on the prairies of the nineteenth century. The term disappeared when they retired in the 1960s. See Tester and Kulchyski, Tammarniit (cited in note 134), p. 186. RCAP” ” Tester and Kulchyski, Tammarniit (cited in note 134), p. 111. The authors also caution that the term experiment must be seen in the context of the administrative culture of the day. The civil servants involved in northern administration considered that they were opening up the North in a manner parallel to what had happened on the Prairies following Confederation— (p. 119). Experiment, at least in this context, had noble rather than sinister connotations.” RCAP.
1930s Poor hunting years in the North led to deprivation among the Inuit. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11). Period of transition between the whaling period and the advent of trading posts.
1930 Bears teeth used as counters.
1930? Maurice was inspired to join the Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay Company when the Archbishop of the Arctic visited his school.
1930 On April 7 Edward Beauclerk Maurice, a sixteen and a half year old teenager went to Pulteney House, on Pulteney Road, a large, elegant Victorian house set in its own picturesque south facing gardens, overlooking Bath Abbey, Bath in Somerset county. He was there to sign a contract with the Governor and Company of the Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson’s Bay Company. George Binney was the representative of the Company. The signing of the contract was witnessed by Laura Clifford and Mr. Belmont.
1930 Edward Beauclerk Maurice arrived in Montreal on his way to the Arctic. England Pangnirtung.
1930 Canadian Handicrafts Guild organized an exhibition of Eskimo Arts and Crafts at the McCord Museum in Montreal. The exhibition attracted the attention of the New York Times. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11)
1931. The “first Catholic mission was established by Father E. Bazin at Avvajja, three kilometres north of Igloolik, in a qarmaq. The great shaman Ituksarjuat and his wife Ataguttaaluk, the last great isumataq (traditional leaders) of Igloolik (Atanarjuat 2002:7).”
1931. Hugh Rowatt was appointed as Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. There were budget cuts due to the Depression. (Parker 1996:28).
1931. Ittuksarjuat converted to Catholicism. He asked to be buried alone on a small island near Igloolik. Ittuksarjuat requested that Inuit “abandon the winter camp of Avvajjaq where bad spirits caused his illness (D’Anglure Atanarjuat 2002:226).”
1932. Ste Therese hospital was built in Chesterfield Inlet in 1932. Source Alexina Kublu Inuit Studies, Nunavut Arctic College.
1933. Sarah Ekoomiak was born in Richmond Gulf on the coast, not far from Kuujjuarapik, Hudson’s Bay. She was the oldest of six children who were born of Charlie Ekomiak and Lucy Menark in the camp of paternal grandfather Jimmie Ekomiak (Fleming) and his wife Annie (name?). Annie was small. The name was supposed to be umiak. Jimmie Ekoomiak Fleming was calling out Umiak! Umiak! So they gave him the name Umiak. Jimmie Ekoomiak died and was buried in Moose Factory cemetery. He was there in 1950s. William Menarick (Willie’s grandfather from his mother’s side). Menarick means smooth. William Menarick is the father of Simon, Caroline (b. strong woman, hunter who walked with a limp, liked Sarah, didn’t want her to get married).
1933-44. In Sarah Ekoomiak’s early childhood years before her mother’s premature death in 1944, her family lived on the land. Her grandfather Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was camp leader. Grandfather Ekomiak was very skilled. He used to make cord from seal skin with a special knife with a curved blade. He made this cord for the dogsleds. Her father Charlie Ekomiak knew how to do this too. Her grandfather knew how to make fish nets. They fished using nets from canoes in rivers, lakes and James Bay all year round. It was a long net with buoys, a piece of a floating wood. They caught white fish and trout and cod, small fish called Kanayuk (sculpin); [need picture of different kinds of fish] used to fish in spring when ice cracks would open. They fished with a jig with a little handle, stick. Caught cod by jigging. Sarah (b.1933), Annie (b.1935), Maggie (b.1937), Sam (b.1939), Emily (b.1941), William (b.1943) were there when Sarah’s mother was alive until 1944. They moved to Kuujjuarapik. In 1941 or 1942 when Sarah was 8 or 9 they left Kuujjuarapik. They moved outside Kuujjuarapik. They lived in semi-tents with trees branches with moss between and a canvas on top. Spruce branches on the floor. Her mother would change the branches six children and mom and dad; Jimmie Ekoomiak Fleming and with his wife had their own tent. Grandmother Fleming was very strict. We lived in camps a lot. Grandmother Fleming kept all her sewing tools wrapped in a loon skin. Eight-year old Sarah and her grand Aunt Dinah wanted to look at the sewing tools but they knew they weren’t supposed to. Her father Charlie Ekoomiak was a good carver and he carved a doll for Sarah. He used to go away for two weeks at a time. All the men would go. The six children would stay behind with her mother. The children didn’t eat as well when the men were gone. Sometimes her mother would catch a rabbit. Sometimes she would fish. Once when Sarah’s mother was going fishing, she told Sarah to take care of Sammie who was only an infant c. 1940. Sarah was only seven or eight years old. Thsi was before Willie was born. They only had a ptarmigan a little meat. Sarah was told to chew the food before giving it to Sammie. Instead she swallowed it. Sarah felt so bad about this incident that she remembered it in 2004. She told me this story several times. Most of the time she would laugh about it but once their were tears in her eyes. Grandmother Rosie still had a seal oil kudlik to warm her teapot. She used cloth as a wick. She hung her kettle above the kudlik. In the morning it would be so cold and her father would make a fire in the morning. Charlie Ekomiak did carvings and he made harnesses for dogs. He decorated the harnesses with wool. Sarah would make little boots for dogs using a square with a hole and sew them for the dogs’ feet to protect the dogs’ feet in the rough ice. I had experienced that vicarious museum-effect while Sarah Ekomiak told stories of her childhood on the land near Chisasibi, Nunavik in the 1930s. Sarah’s family was semi-nomadic. As they moved from hunting camp to fishing camp, they would sometimes come upon ancient abandoned sites where ancient objects spoke of the people who had passed through here before. They found bones, weapons, the tops of tobacco tin cans recycled for oil lamps and even a narwhal tusk& This was the archives, the museum. When Peter Outridge came to present slides at our home one evening on his Arctic travels, he brought items that were collected from abandoned camps. This sparked Sarah’s memories. Sarah’s mother, Lucie Menarik could speak Cree. The Cree and Charlie Ekomiak camp got along well like a big family. The first time she went to Chisasibi Indians still lived in tents. She remembers them. Some are still living. Claude x 50-year-old lived in Chisasibi and he remembered the Ekomiaks. They shared flour and food with each other. Indians used to have toboggan with all their hunting things. Her father had komatik. They shared whatever they knew. Her aunt married an Indian. She died. They were happy together. They had seven children who are part Inuk and part Cree but now they don’t speak Inuktitut. They were the only Inuit family in Chisasibi. They brought us there to go to school. They got along well with the Cree. They spoke Inuktitut at home and Cree outside. Now in her old community they speak three languages, English too. Sarah’s grandmother taught her how to make good boots because she told her she would need to know how to sew them.
1934. Gold was discovered in Yellowknife. In 1938 the Con mine began production. Two local community supporters were Ingraham, a bootlegger and Giegerich, manager of Consolidated Mining and Smetling Company, now called Cominco. (Parker 1996:28) The Alaska Highway was pushed through BC and the Yukon. The Canol Pipeline was constructed from Norman Wells to Whitehorse through the Mackenzie mountains to carry oil. It was later abandoned. (Parker 1996:29).
1935. In the mid-1930s Atagutaaluk and her husband the shaman chief Ittuksarjuat lived in a qarmaq, a sod or stone house (D’Anglure 2002:222) in Igloolik which was illustrated by her daughter Suzanne Niviarsiat for the publication accompanying the film Atanarjuat (2002:213). Atagutaaluk survived the famine of 1905. A shaman Palluq from Igloolik and Repulse Bay found her. Ittuksarjuat died in. See also 1950 Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13.
1935-6. Inuit lands and peoples were under the authority of the Department of the Interior, Annual Report 1935-36, p. 36.
1936. The “Department of Indian Affairs was made a branch of the Department of Mines and Resources (1 Ed. VIII Chap. 33). The Indian Affairs Branch was placed under Dr. H.W. McGill as director. The branch included the following components: Field Administration (four inspectors, one Indian Commissioner and one hundred and fifteen agents); Medical Welfare and Training Service (responsible for schools, employment and agricultural projects); Reserves and Trust Service (responsible for land matters and timber disposal); Records Service (responsible for current files and historical material).” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm
1936. Dr. Charles Camsell was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. His father was a factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company (Parker 1996:28).
1936. The Hudson’s Bay Company post was established at Igloolik.
1936. Responsibility for Indian Affairs passed to the Minister of Mines and Resources. The position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs which was part of the Canadian cabinet from 1867 until 1936, was abolished.
1936. “There was a Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs in the Canadian cabinet from 1867 until 1936 when the Minister of Mines and Resources became responsible for native affairs. In 1950 the Indian Affairs branch was transferred to the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, who had responsibility for “registered Indians” until the creation of the position of Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966. Before 1966 the Northern Development portions of the portfolio were the responsibility of the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources.”
1937. The Catholic mission was built on Igloolik Island at Ikpiarjuk near the town of Igloolik.
1938. These were good years of living on the land for Sarah Ekoomiak and her family. She was only five years old. She can remember being tucked into the nose of her father’s kayak and she could see jellyfish, rocks, and fish. She cherishes this memory.
1938 Roman Catholic mission established at Cape Dorset.
1939 The Indian committee of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild was changed to Indian and Eskimo Committee to include the encouragement of Inuit work. Committee members included Alice Whitehall, Dr. Diamond Jenness. The Inuit collection at that time included miniature baskets, a kerosene lamp, fine fur work, walrus tusk ivories including an altar frontal made by the women of Pangnirtung.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11)
1939 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled the Inuit were entitled to the same health, education and social services as the Indians were granted in the 1876 Indian Act. (Hessel 1998:190)
1939 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild exhibited Bishop Fleming’s Inuit art collection.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11)
1939. Inuit relocations in the Arctic began in 1939 (Tester and Kulchyski 1994).
1939? Just before she died Sarah Ekoomiak’s paternal grandmother, Rosie (1860s- c.1937) lacked the strength and could no longer work as hard as she wanted. She couldn’t help others so she made a promise that her grandchildren would help others. Greatgrandmother Rosie Fleming was very spiritual. She became agitated because she could not tell her people about God so when she died a cigar-shaped form appeared in the sky writing letters of smoke in the heavens. The Hudson Bay company man could read it but none of the Inuit could. Sarah claims that she saw this so it must have been in the 1930s? when she died? The HBC man changed his religion because it was the only improvement he could think of. He changed from Catholic to Anglican. This happened in Kuujuarapik (Great Whale River).
1939 The Canadian Handicrafts Guild exhibited Bishop Fleming’s Inuit art collection (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:11).
1940. Lascaux caves were discovered. Carbon dating provided proof that the human ancestry could be traced much farther back in time than previously understood (Leclerc 1992:36-9).
1940 It was noted in the minutes of the meeting of the Canadian Handicrafts Guild that the art of basketry was practiced in a section of the Ungava region. Basket making had been introduced there c. 1740 by the Moravian missionaries. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1940s RCMP conducted census of Inuit populations. They assigned the infamous identification numbering system using discs. These disc numbers were dropped during the “Operation Surname” in the 1960s. Canadian government assumed responsibility for Inuit welfare in the late 1940s. (Hessel 1998:8) 1940s. According to Bernard Saladin d’Anglure (2002 Atanarjuat: 225) shamanism was eradicated in the Arctic. An era of intense rivalry between Anglicans and Catholics began ending only in 1962-5 with the Second Vatican Council. Catholic missionaries encouraged Mark Tungilik in Repulse Bay to carve miniature ivories. There was widespread awareness of the threat of atomic bomb in the south. Certitudes in the West were shattered and philosophy was shaken (Leclerc 1992:36-8).

1940s According to Bernard Saladin d’Anglure (2002 Atanarjuat: 225) shamanism was eradicated in the Arctic. An era of intense rivalry between Anglicans and Catholics began ending only in 1962-5 with the Second Vatican Council.,

1940s Catholic missionaries encouraged Mark Tungilik in Repulse Bay to carve miniature ivories.,

1940s There was widespread awareness of the threat of atomic bomb. Certitudes were shattered. Philosophy was shaken (Leclerc 1992:36-8).

1940 -2 RCMP schooner St. Roch completed Northwest Passage from west to east?

1940 -2 Peter Pitseolak (1902 – 1973) experimented with watercolours and collage dressing a magazine image of Clark Gable with Inuit fur clothing. He would go on to become a skilled photographer. (Hessel 1998:25)

1940 – 45 Guild activities were cut back during WWII. (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1941.S. Arneil, Investigation Report on Indian Reserves and Indian Administration, Province of Nova Scotia (Ottawa: Department of Mines and Resources, Indian Affairs Branch, August 1941). RCAP.

1943. E9-630 Willie Ekomiak was born in Cape Jones on the coast across from Long Island. His mother dropped Willie when he was a baby and he was hurt. His wrist was bleeding very badly and she cried very hard. His mother Lucie Menarik Ekomiak died shortly after that. They were living in camp somewhere out in Kuujjuarapik. Before her mother died Sarah carried Willie on her back. Their mother died when Sarah was still in school. Sarah was the oldest girl. William was born when the family was moving south from Great Whale River to Fort George because Jimmy Ekomiak Fleming wanted his children to go to school. There were no schools farther north. William, his brother Samuel, Sarah, Maggie, Jeannie all went to school in Fort George. Other Inuit families included the Menarick’s, Isaac Fleming’s children. Jimmie Ekomiak Fleming was the camp leader. They lived by the river.

1944. Lucie Menarik Ekomiak, Sarah Ekoomiak and Willie Ekomiak’s mother died. She had bad migraines perhaps from high blood pressure. When she died he was adopted by his Aunt Martha and Uncle Thomas Ekoomiak. There were three or four camps together. Aunt Martha wore a shawl like many women of the time. Their sister Emilie (b.1941) was also adopted out but she was not well cared for so Charlie Ekomiak got her back from Great Whale River Kuujjuarapik. She became William’s favourite playmate. Great Whale River, Kuujjuarapik (by the Inuit) or Whapmagoostui (by the Cree).

1945. “Indian Health Services was transferred from the Department of Mines and Resources to the Department of National Health and Welfare (P.C. 1945-6495). At this time Eskimo Health Services was also transferred from the responsibility of the Northwest Territories Division of Lands, Parks, and Forests Branch. R.A. Hoey was appointed director of Indian Affairs Branch.” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm

1945-7. Jimmy Ekomiak Fleming moved south so that the children could attend school in Fort George. Sarah Ekoomiak lived in Chisasibi. Sarah Ekoomiak attended school in Fort George. Her grandfather decided that some of the children would attend Anglican school while the others attended the Catholic school. She tried to play with her uncle Elijah Menarik, her mother Lucie’s youngest brother, but it was hard to communicate because he spoke only Cree. They had made up a game using pebbles. Ask her about this. Elijah Menarik (1931-1991) was the youngest of ten children. The others were Lucie (Sarah Ekoomiak’s mother), Moses, Neeala, Johnny, Maggie, Marianne and Elijah. Marianne is still alive but she has developed alzheimers disease. His sister Lucie was Sarah Ekoomiak’s mother. Elijah was brought up with a Cree family with ten children and he could not speak Inuktitut until he was in his late teens. A white teacher Mrs. Heinz, had him sent to Inukjuak when he was 18 or 19 years old so he could learn Inuktitut! Elijah was active in the Co-ops in Iqaluit. He also worked in Inuvik for awhile. Sarah has his story and photo. Elijah’s success led to his alcoholism as every success was celebrated with alcohol. When he was young he worked as an orderly in Moose Factory hospital. His daughter Jeannie, Sarah’s first cousin lives in Africa with her millionaire French husband, originally from Montreal, who made a fortune in aircraft.

1945-61. Oblate missionary Father Franz van de Velde was the only white person in the remote community of Pelly Bay. He encouraged the production and marketing of ivory miniatures and scenes. He sold them through the mail (Hessel 1998:109).

1945 Maurice, at 32 years of age moved to New Zealand, became a bookseller in an English village and never traveled again.

1946 The International Whaling Commission (IWC) began regulating whaling.

1946 Canadian Army’s Arctic military exercise “Operation Muskox” at Baker Lake. Major Cleghorn noted the high quality of carvings in the Keewatin area and suggested this potential developed.

1946. American capitalists began to invest in Canadian companies. Prior to WWII British investors were the principal investors in Canadian companies (Leclerc 1992:36-8).

1946. Barnett Newman (1946) wrote the opening paragraph ‘Northwest Coast Indian Painting’ in an exhibition catalogue for the Betty Parsons Gallery in New York, in which he argued that, “It is becoming more and more apparent that to understand modern art, one must have an appreciation of primitive arts, for just as modern art stands as an island of revolt in the stream of Western European aesthetics, the many primitive art traditions stand apart as authentic accomplishments that flourished without benefit of European history (Cited in Houle 1982:3).” 1946. La philosophie francaise souffrait d’une mise en question. La guerre et l’occupation avait mis fin a l’anti-intellectualisme bergsonien (compromis par une obscrue parante avec l’irrationalisme allemand). En 1946 des hegelians et les existentialists commence a monter.1946 La philosophie francaise professionelle commence a naitre, souverain, temoin et juge exterieur a la vie, distingue par leur distance (la vie spirituelle). (Lefebvre 1958:12).

1946 La philosophie francaise souffrait d’une mise en question. La guerre et l’occupation avait mis fin a l’anti-intellectualisme bergsonien (compromis par une obscrue parante avec l’irrationalisme allemand). En 1946 des hegelians et les existentialists commence a monter.1946 La philosophie francaise professionelle commence a naitre, souverain, temoin et juge exterieur a la vie, distingue par leur distance (la vie spirituelle). (Lefebvre 1958:12),

1947 Dr. Hugh Keenleyside was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. Under his leadership education, social service and health programs were implemented. (Parker 1996:30),

1947 In connection with Operation Muskox, a weather station was established in Baker Lake.

1947 M.V. Nascopie sinks off Cape Dorset.

1947 The Guild was asked to encourage Inuit in the Ungava region to continue carving as a much needed source of additional income. Hunting was poor, the price of fur was down and the Inuit had proven their gift for carving. The Guild emphasized the need to maintain the artist’s individuality and independence. A one-page letter was sent to northern communities asking them to carve ivory models, brooches, pendants… (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1947 James Houston from Grandmère visited Port Harrison.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1947. Dr. Hugh Keenleyside was appointed Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. Under his leadership education, social service and health programs were implemented. (Parker 1996:30).

1947. Jock McNiven, manager of Negus mine in Yellowknife, was appointed to the Council of the Northwest Territories. (Parker 1996:30).

1947. Three years after the death of his first wife Lucie, Charlie Ekomiak married Maggie Tootoo (tuktu). William was in the hospital when he was three. He was a chubby baby.

1947. “The Welfare and Training Division was split into a Welfare Division (responsible for welfare, family allowances, Veterans’ Land Act administration, and handicrafts) and an Education Division.” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm

1947. Henri-Georges Clouzot’s classical film Quai des Orfevres was shown portraying the dance halls and historic crime corridors of 1940s Paris. Various furs — fox furs, sunburst, coats, collars, trim, hats — worn by Jenny Lamour, the ambitious singer with stars in her eyes, in the chilly interiors of poorly heated Parisian buildings, were important ‘actors’ in this classical film.

1947. The western part of the Mackenzie delta area was added to the Yukon Territories. (Parker 1996:30).

1948. Communists took over Czecheslovakia. There was a threat of an iron curtain dividing Europe along a north-south axis. The Cold War began with democratic and communist countries in tension each holding the other in atomic terror (Leclerc 1992:36).

1948. Polio struck the Keewatin region. By 1949 there was a serious epidemic in Chesterfield Inlet. Quarantine was put into affect which included the surrounding regions. Mark Kalluak, wrote about his childhood experience with polio in a 1997 article for Inuktitut magazine.

1948-52. These were the years William Ekomiak (b.1943) remembers as the hungry years. Sarah was between 15 to 19 years old. Willie was between 5 to nine years old.

1949 – 1953 Early years of contemporary period of Inuit art.

1949 The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12)

1949 Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch)and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. This marked the beginning of what art historians call the ”contemporary period of Inuit art” (Wenzel 1985:81) The Canadian Handicraft Guild sponsored the James Houston project promoting Inuit carvings in the south. From this time onwards public galleries began small collections of Inuit art (Jessup 1992:xiv)? Confirm?

1949. “Indian Affairs Branch transferred to the Department of Citizenship and Immigration (13 Geo. VI Chap. 16). The administrative structure of the Branch remained virtually unchanged. A Construction and Engineering Service, however, was created. 1948 – Maj. D.M. MacKay appointed director of Indian Affairs Branch.” http://collections.ic.gc.ca/treaties/text/rec_e_tx.htm

1949. Striking of the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences popularly known as the Massey Commission after its Chair, Vincent Massey.

1949-50. The NWT Ennadai Lake Signal Detachment of Operation Muskox? arranged an airlift of the Kazan River Inuit community. The group was in danger of starvation after migrant caribou herds by-passed the area. The Inuit returned the next year and were frequent recipients of the detachment’s medical aid until the detachment closed three years later. In that year there was widespread starvation. Comment: Was there a relationship between the disappearing caribou herds and Operation Muskox?

1949 Molson, C. J. G., Alice Whitehall, et al. 1949. The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts (Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12). Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch) and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. The Guild held a sale of Inuit art on Peel Street, Montreal marking the beginning of the contemporary period of Inuit art. (Wenzel 1985:81) (1949-53). Montreal, Canadian Handicraft Guild. The Guild sponsored James Houston’s trip to Povungnitok region in order for him to purchase Inuit arts and crafts.(Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec 1980:12) Canadian Handicraft Guild of Montreal sale of Inuit art on Peel Street. Guild members C. J. G. Molson (Quebec branch) and Alice Whitehall encouraged James Houston to return north to buy more carvings. The Guild held a sale of Inuit art on Peel Street, Montreal marking the beginning of the contemporary period of Inuit art. (Wenzel 1985:81) (1949-53)

1940s – 50s Polio in the North.

1950. Cape Dorset gets a one-room school.

1950. Federal day school opened in Igloolik. Anglican mission established in Igloolik.

1950. From 1850 to 1950 concepts such as Wilderness and North informed Canadian visual and literary arts. See Heath (1983:46).

1950. Heinrich’s (1950) article entitled “Some Present-Day Acculturative Innovations in a Nonliterate Society” published in the American Anthropologist focused on his study of the emergence of the ivory carving as a Diomede Eskimo of Alaska cultural industry. The Inuit innovated and expanded on cultural products for the tourist market.

1950. Hugh Young, a strong army man, was named Commissioner of the Northwest Territories. In 1925 he had established Aklavik as an army signals station (Parker 1996:30).

1950. “In 1950 the Indian Affairs branch was transferred to the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, who had responsibility for “registered Indians” until the creation of the position of Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966. Before 1966 the Northern Development portions of the portfolio were the responsibility of the Minister of Northern Affairs and National Resources.” wikipedia.org.

1950. Inuit first vote in a Canadian election (Alia).

1950. A nursing station was built at Baker Lake.

1950. The “offices of Minister of Mines and Resources and Minister of Reconstruction and Supply were abolished by Statute and the offices of the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Minister of Mines and Technical Surveys and Minister of Resources and Development created and proclaimed in force on 18 Jan. 1950.” wikipedia.

1950. Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo. 16:13.

1950. There were only five galleries advertised in the Montreal Star. By 1972 there were already forty-five. Harold Town graduated from the Ontario College of Art in 1944 was not able to see a single non-figurative painting until 1953. See Withrow (1972:8). Town noted that at that time their were few art teachers because of the war. Town grew up in a rough working-class WASP neighbourhood in Toronto. He worked as commercial illustrator to support his own studio work in the 1940s. His reputation grew when he exhibited with the Painters Eleven in 1952. His work was highly cotés which allowed him to have a comfortable home in Toronto with his family.

1950 A nursing station was built at Baker Lake.

1950s Puvirnituq developed around a HBC post.

1951 Anglican church is built in Cape Dorset.

1951 James Houston visited Pangnirtung and showed crafts and carvings. He noted that the area did not have really good carving stone. But the women could create art with a needle by sewing on their clothing.

  
1952 Doug Wilkinson produced Land of the Long Day about Joseph Idlout from Pond Inlet, a respected hunter and camp leader.The 1967 two dollar bill depicted a still from the film with Idlout.

1950s Slump in fox fur trade.

1950s In Rankin Inlet some Inuit employed by nickel mine.

1952 Canadian government promotes Inuit art. Akeeaktashuk carvings of Hunter, Bear…

1952 Salluit began its art project and by 1955 70% of the adult population were carving (1998 Hessel).

1953 Pangnirtung used to be largest settlement in the eastern or central Arctic. Famous old center for Scottish whalers. Small hospital. C. D. Howe anchored there. Pannirtung Fjord is particularly beautiful. Mountains are blue, snow capped.

1953 Houston visited Pangnirtung again and saw some enormous Arctic bowheads (Houston, James. 1996:151).

1955 Alma and James Houston settle in Cape Dorset and are active in encouraging carving and handicrafts.

1955 DEW Line was built.

1955. Turquetil Hall residence was opened in 1955(?) in Chesterfield Inlet. Source Alexina Kublu Inuit Studies, Nunavut Arctic College.

1957 – 58 Widespread starvation in the Keewatin area. Back River camps move into Baker Lake.

1957 A federal dayschool opened at Baker Lake. Pre-fabricated subsidized government housing constructed from the mid-1950s. Northern Services Officer Doug Wilkinson encouraged the development of the arts and crafts industry in Baker Lake.

1958 James Houston studies printmaking in Japan.

1958 The Povungnitok Sculptors’ Society formed in 1958 and became the Povungnituk’s Co-operative in 1960 (Myers, M. ).

1959 West Baffin Cooperative first print collection printed in 1959 was shown at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in 1960.

1960s Jorgen Meldgaard excavated Palaeo-Eskimo occupations at Igloolik. 1961 Bernard Saladin d’Anglure was shown petroglyphs Dorset sites of the coast of Nunavik.

1961 West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative is incorporated.

1963 Rankin Inlet ceramics project introduced.

1960s The Winnipeg Art Gallery and the Canadian Museum of Civilization (the National Museum of Man) started to collect, research and exhibit Inuit art.

1964 The first ‘matchbox” houses are brought to Cape Dorset. Cape Dorset gets its first telephones.

1969 The S.S.Manhattan, an American icebreaker-tanker made the $40 million northwest passage through Canadian Arctic waters .

1970 Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) a national political association, formed by Inuit students living in the south. Inuit politics was born. Before the 1970s the co-op was the only organized voice Inuit had. (Myers 1980:139)

1970 Baker Lake’s first print collection published. This was the year after the arrival of southern artists Sheila and Jack Butler. Sanavik Co-operative is incorporated in 1971.

1971 “Arctic Quebec cooperatives combined with the community councils to begin negotiating a form of regional government within the province of Quebec (Myers 1980:143).”

1971 Inuit sculpture showcased in international exhibition, Sculpture/Inuit: Masterworks of the Canadian Arctic(Canadian Eskimo Arts Council). 1970s Igloolik artists begin to produce art in quantities in 1970s.

1973 – 1988 Pangnirtung printmaking co-op is established as a territorial government sponsored project.

1976 The annual Cape Dorset print collection included Pudlo Pudlat’s controversial print entitled Airplane.

1976 “Before 1976 the anti-sealing campaign centered on the need for sound conservation and humane killing practices. After 1976, because of a strong regulatory regime enacted by the Canadian government on species conservation, the issues shifted to a ‘morality of any use of seals’  (Wenzel 1991:47).”

1977 Inuit prints showcased in international exhibition, The Inuit Print/L’estampe Inuit(National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada).

1977 Inuit Circumpolar Conference adopted Inuit as the designation for all Eskimos, regardless of local usages. (1996) Arctic Perspectives.

1977 Baker Lake print shop, its drawing archives and 1977 print collection are destroyed by fire.

1980 “Inuit arts and crafts generated five million dollars in personal income for Inuit (Myers 1980:141).”

1980 The Macdonald Stewart Art Centre acquired over 400 drawings dating from the 1960s to the 1990s by Canadian Inuit artists.

1980s The National Gallery of Canada and the Art Gallery of Ontario begin to collect, research and exhibit Inuit art.

1980s In the 1980s, postcards were distributed to 12 million United States and United Kingdom households depicting the infamous Canadian Atlantic fisher swinging a bat at a baby seal and eliciting an overwhelming emotional response. Major legislative bodies relented to public pressure with a staggering impact on wildlife management. The collapse of the sealskin market marked a victory for protesters who had waged the most effective, international mass media campaign ever undertaken (Ejesiak, Flynn-Burhoe 2005).”

1981 In 1981 ringed seal natisiq provided nearly 2/3 of the edible biomass in Clyde River. In 1982-3 seal was barely half this total (Wenzel 1991:125)

1982 The members of the European Economic Community agreed to a voluntary ban on the importation of seal products and have recently agreed to indefinitely extend this embargo (Wenzel 1985).”  

1983 Economy of the North: Until 1983 cash came from seal skins.

1985 “Inuk lawyer Paul Okalik’s arguments for recognition of the seal as mainstay of the Inuit fell on deaf ears in 1985. Today, he speaks as the premier of Nunavut, Canada’s newest territory, a vast region of the central and eastern Arctic covering over a million square miles. Nunavut, which means ”our land,” is the result of decades of deliberations, one of four Canadian Arctic regions involved in self-government negotiations (Ejesiak, Flynn-Burhoe 2005).”

1985 George W. Wenzel wrote an article entitled ”Marooned in a Blizzard of Contradictions: Inuit and the Anti-Sealing Movement” in the journal Etudes Inuit Studies in which he argued that “For the past thirty years opponents of commercial sealing, as practiced in Canada have attempted through public, media, and governmental pressures to bring an end to the hunt.” ”The 1985 Council of the European Economic Community extended the 1983 ban on imports of all products of the commercial sealhunt. This closed the most important fur fashion market to sealskins and devastated the Canadian sealskin market. It was an impressive victory for animal rights activists. “To Inuit, however, who had gone virtually unnoticed in the general furor of lobbying in the preceding days, it represented not simply the loss of a market but the real problem of maintaining the fabric of their culture in the face of southern domination.” At this time, in 1985, the Royal Commission on Seals and the Sealing Industry was in the midst of hearings on the sealhunt. Canadians hoped that this ‘hard scientific data’ would convince the EEC of the environmental integrity and socioeconomic importance of at least some aspects of sealing.” This was a naive point of view. When the ban was extended no thought was given to the consequences in the lives of 25,000 Inuit. The Inuit had just presented their testimonies to the Royal Commission. These were not heard before the EEC made their decision. In the US and Europe “…anti-sealing waged a ‘public relations battle’ to ‘capture southern hearts and minds’. “The milestones of this war were recorded by the contributions that reached the campaign coffers and the bags of pre-printed IFAW and Greenpeace postcards that inundated the desks of politicians.’ ‘Canada’s Inuit did not choose to be involved in the sealing controversy. To Inuit it was an issue between Qallunat – those Whites who took sealskins for money alone and those to whom this was wrong (Wenzel 1991:3).”
  
1987 The Macdonald Stewart Art Centre presented its touring exhibition Contemporary Inuit Drawings, the first survey exhibition of drawings by Inuit artists.

1989 First Inuit art exhibition in the National Gallery of Canada’s new building: Pudlo: Thirty Years of Drawing. Pudlo Pudlat attends opening.

1991 George W. Wenzel published Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. This research which began as a short journal article developed into a book over a ten year period. Much of the data gathered on the Inuit sealhunt was gathered in Clyde River, Baffin Island in the late 1980’s. The US Congress, antifur groups were other ’sites’ of research. This is the most thorough, the most credible of all the research materials available on the sealhunt.   

1992 Pangnirtung’s Uqqurmiut Inuit Artists Association opens its weave shop, built a new print shop and began releasing collections.

1994 Baker Lake Art Symposium, Baker Lake which included the opening of the exhibition Qamanittuaq: Where the River Widens.

1998 First Inuit art history survey textbook published Hessel, Ingo. Inuit Art. He described how more than 4,000 Inuit have made over one million works since the 1940s. (Hessel ix) 35,000 Inuit live in about 50 small communities in the North. (Hessel 1998:9)

1999 April 1, the First Government of Nunavut was formed under Paul Okalik. Over the next five years the Nunavut Government stablished a Unified Court system; Human Rights Act for Nunavut was passed by the Legislative Assembly; Created Inuit Impact Benefit Agreement on Territorial Parks in partnership with NTI; Established major crown corporations: Nunavut Housing Corporation and Qulliq Energy Corporation; Signed a Northern Co-operation Accord with the Northwest Territories and Yukon; Updated and created legislation and policies to reflect the specific needs of Nunavut; Negotiated a protocol with Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. on bilateral co-operation. A review of the protocol was conducted and, in light of experience, resulted in the government and NTI agreeing to conduct their working relations in accordance with Iqqanaijaqatigiit (Working Together.) (GN 2004).

2000 Edward Beauclerk Maurice was 87-years-old completing his book on his youthful experience in Canada’s North in the 1930s. He worried about the use of the word Eskimo instead of Inuit. His manuscript was already complete and when he was in the North Eskimo was the term used.

2001. In September 2001, “the Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples commenced hearings to develop An Action Plan for Change: Urban Aboriginal Youth . Upon examination of issues affecting urban Aboriginal youth in Canada, in particular, access, provision and delivery of services, policy and jurisdictional issues, employment and education, access to economic opportunities, youth participation and empowerment and other related matters, the Committee is expected to table its report no later than June 28, 2002. So far, the Committee has held seven meetings and heard evidence from witnesses of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada, the Privy Council Office, Statistics Canada and the Department of Justice Canada.” See SSCAP (2001) http://www.sen.parl.gc.ca/lpearson/htmfiles/hill/22_htm_files/v22_SenateStudy.htm

2001. Inuit elder, artist, cultural worker and activist, Mariano Aupilardjuk was honoured with an Aboriginal Achievement Award in 2001 for his contributions as a bridge between generations, Inuit governance, local residents, on how to use IQ in modern society. In local Rankin Inlet elementary and secondary schools, at NAC, across Canada, advises RCMP, facilitates community and pan-territorial healing, and works with youth to help them acquire land skills.
2002 Bernard Saladin d’Anglure translated Mitiarjuk Nappaaluk’s Sanaaq, a fictional account of a woman in Nunavik who was born in the 1930s.

2002 E/IS. 2002. “Etudes Inuit Studies: Contents of “Inuit and Qallunaaq Perspectives: Interacting Points of View”.” 26 1. http://www.fss.ulaval.ca/etudes-inuit-studies/lastissu.HTML

2003 “Climate change is eroding the role Inuit elders play in their communities because it makes their traditional knowledge unreliable, elders told researchers at a workshop on global warming last week in Kangiqsujuaq (Nelson 2003).”

2004 The ICC got the idea of petitioning the Commission from the compelling scientific evidence of the Artic Climate Impact Assessment (Watt-Cloutier 2004).

2004 Wayne Govereau, Population and Public Health, Dept. of Health and Social Services, Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, Nunavut was investigator for the Nunavut. Dept. of Health and Social Service for a research project entitled, “Monitoring temporal trends of human environmental contaminants in the NWT and Nunavut : Inuvik and Baffin regions.” “The Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services with support from the Northern Contaminants Program is delivering a program which measures levels of environmental contaminants in the blood and hair of volunteer pregnant women from the Baffin region. The overall goal of this program is to establish a time trend of selected environmental contaminants in human blood and hair in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The results from this study will strengthen national and international efforts to limit the global pollution that affects northern people. Information collected about lifestyle during pregnancy will help to explain relationships between lifestyle and exposure to environmental contaminants, and to promote healthy babies and pregnancies in Nunavut. The study will involve the recruitment of pregnant women in Iqaluit once they arrive to give birth. Women will be asked to answer some questions about lifestyle and diet during pregnancy. Participants will be asked to sign a consent form agreeing to provide a hair sample, a sample of their blood and blood from their umbilical cord after it has been cut. The blood sample will be collected during a scheduled blood draw, and will not involve and risk or discomfort beyond what is normally experienced. During the recruitment process, women can decide whether they wish to sign a consent form agreeing to also participate in Phase 2 of the study in 2005/2006. Phase 2 involves follow up with their infants at 6 months of age. This follow up will involve tests to assess if prenatal exposure to contaminants has effected infant development. Communication is an important part of this monitoring program. Communication activities will be ongoing with communities, stakeholders and participants throughout the program (ASTIS 2007).”

2004 Kativik Regional Government and Laval University signed an agreement resulting in the creation Nunivaat Nunavik statistics program which provides updated statistics and research reports. Nunivaat now has a database of information at www.nunivaat.org.

2005 “Over 100 dignitaries, family and friends were on hand at the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut as The Honourable Ann Meekitjuk Hanson was sworn in as the third Commissioner of Nunavut on April 21, 2005. In an emotional ceremony, Elders, the Premier of Nunavut, Members of the Legislative Assembly, federal representatives, and honored guests applauded as Ann Meekitjuk Hanson was appointed to the post. She was sworn-in officially and signed the oath of office with Senator Willie Adams presiding, as the representative of the Government of Canada, which officially appointed her to the post [. . .] Commissioner Hanson is the 3rd official Commissioner of Nunavut, following Helen Mamayaok Maksagak and Peter Taqtu Irniq (GN 2005 ).”

2005 Rodolfo Stavenhagen, special rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people of Canada reported to the Commission on Human Rights that, “In Nunavut, the existing social housing units are among the oldest, smallest and mostcrowded in Canada. There is a severe housing shortage in Nunavut that adversely affects the health of Inuit, in particular of children, and it is estimated that 3,500 new units are needed over the next five years. The overall health of Inuit continues to lag far behind that of other Canadians. Life expectancy is 10 years lower than the rest of Canada. Many health indicators are getting worse. Arctic research shows that changes in traditional diets lead to increased health problems,particularly of mental health, characterized by increased rates of depression, seasonal affective disorder, anxiety and suicide. Inuit leaders are deeply concerned that the housing, education,health and suicide situation have reached crisis proportions and are not being addressed by the federal Government (Stavenhagen 2005:#38-39).”

2006 Gérard Duhaime of Laval university, produced a socio-economic profile of Nunavik.

2007-03-29 Kirt Ejesiak of Iqaluit was chosen to represent Nunavut for the federal Liberals. “Ejesiak, a Fulbright Scholar, has a masters of public administration degree from Harvard, making him the first Inuk to hold a post-secondary degree from the American university. Before going to Harvard, he had served as an Iqaluit city councillor and deputy mayor, and was Premier Paul Okalik’s principal secretary.He is currently CEO and creative director of Uqsiq Communications, an Iqaluit-based multimedia communications firm, as well as managing partner of the Gallery by the Red Boat, an art gallery in Apex (CBC 2007).”

2007-09-25 Indian and Northern Affairs minister Chuck Strahl visited Iqaluit, Nunavut Tuesday, where he announced $17 million in new funding for ­International Polar Year projects. The money funds 10 research projects, and includes $7 million to study the impact of climate change on the Arctic tundra and $2.5 million to study the changing sub-Arctic treeline.

2007-10-04 A researcher with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Gary Stern, presenting at the northern contaminants workshop in Lake Louise, Alberta, admits that the levels of mercury particularly in the Arctic Ocean have risen over the last fifteen years and indeed have been linked to health problems such as birth defects and cancer. In spite of that however, he contends that the benefits of eating caribou, whale (beluga) or ring seals as a rich source of vitamins and nutrition are greater than the risks. He also admits that more studies must be done to reveal the sources of mercury contamination which are particularly high in Arctic birds, beluga and ringed seals (CBC 2007-10-05).

2007-09 Skills Information System Receives National Award

Data Shows Positive Changes for Nunavut Students
  
2007-10 Inuit Employment within Nunavut Government Increased to 50 per cent

Selected bibliography

ASTIS. Arctic Science and Technology Information System. 2007. Abstracts of Research Projects Involving Inuit.   http://www.aina.ucalgary.ca/scripts/minisa.dll/144/proe/proeyd/su+women+and+rt+any+r?COMMANDSEARCH

Freeman, M. 1976. Inuit Land Use and Occupancy Project, Vol. 3: Land Use Atlas. Ottawa: Dept. of Indian and Northern Affairs.
Berger, T. R. 1980. Report of the Commission on Indian and Inuit Health Consultation. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada. 

Berger, T. R. 1985. Village Journey: The Report of the Alaska Native Review Commission. New York: Hill and Wang.

Brice-Bennet, C. Ed. 1977. Our Footprints Are Everywhere: Inuit Land Use and Occupation in Labrador. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer.

Castellano, Marlene Brant. 1983. “Canadian Case Study: The Role of Adult Education Promoting Community Involvement in Primary Health Care.” Unpublished manuscript. Trent University.

Castellano, Marlene Brant. 1986. “Collective Wisdom: Participatory Research and Canada’s Native People.” Convergence. 19 (3):50-53.
1920-. Beaver, A Magazine of the North, vol. 1-. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Hudson’s Bay Company. http://www.historysociety.ca/bea.asp?subsection=ext&page=his.
  
2001 [1975]. “Comments on Carving Soapstone by Aktug, Atoat and Pauloosie, The Beaver, Winnipeg: Hudsons’s Bay Company, Autumn 1975. Courtesy of The Beaver, Canada’s National History Society.” in North: Landscape of the Imagination, vol. V. Ottawa, ON: National Library of Canada. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/2/16/h16-7500-e.html.

Bibliography. Interviewing the Elders: Perspectives on Traditional Law. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.

Blodgett, Jean and Bouchard, Marie. 1986. Jessie Oonark: A Retrospective. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery.

Boswell, Randy. 2003. “Unsung Arctic heroine.” in The Ottawa Citizen.
  
CBC. 2007. “Ejesiak given federal Liberal nod in Nunavut. ” 2007-03-29.

CBC. 2007-10-05. “Traditional food better despite pollutants, researchers say.” http://www.cbc.ca/canada/north/story/2007/10/05/northern-food.html
  
CMC. “Lost Visions, Forgotten Dreams Life and Art of an Ancient Arctic People.” Canadian Museum of Civilisation. http://www.civilization.ca/archeo/paleoesq/peinteng.html.
  
DIAND. 1975-. “Igloolik Research Centre.” http://pooka.nunanet.com/~research/igloolik.htm.
  
Duhaime, Gérard. 2006. “Socio-Economic Profile of Nunavik 2006.”

Ejesiak, Kirt; Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2005. “Animal Rights vs. Inuit Rights.” The Boston Globe. May 8, 2005.

Ejesiak, Kirt; Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2005. “Animal Rights vs. Inuit Rights.” The Boston Globe. May 8, 2005. >> Op-Ed. Kennedy School. Harvard University.Eber, Dorothy. 1971. “Pitseolak: Pictures Out of My Life.” Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Eber, Dorothy H. . 1985. When the Whalers were up North Montreal: : McGill-Queen’s University Press. Native and Northern Studies. .
  
Eber, Dorothy Harley. 2004. “Eva Talooki: Her Tribute to Seed Beads, Long-time Jewels of the Arctic.” Inuit Art Quarterly 19:12-17.

George, Jane. 2000. “Inuit lodge complaint over government dog extermination.” in Nunatsiaq News. Kuujjuaq.

GN Government of Nunavut. 2004. ” Pinasuaqtavut: 2004-2009:Our Commitment to Building Nunavut’s Future Working to improve the health, prosperity, and self-reliance of Nunavummiut).” http://www.gov.nu.ca/Nunavut/pinasuaqtavut/engcover.pdf
  
(GN 2005 ).
GN Government of Nunavut “ 2007. ᐋᒃᑑᐸ – October – Aktuupa.” http://www.gov.nu.ca/Nunavut/English/news/2007/oct/
  
Grygier, Pat Sandiford. 1994. A Long Way from Home: the Tuberlosis Epidemic among the Inuit. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  
Iglauer, Edith 1964. “Re Armour, Bill’s role in Baker Lake cultural industry in the early 1960s.” Macleans.
  
Iqallijuq, Rose and Johanasi Ujarak. 1998. “The Private and Public Performances of the Angakkut: Discoveries of starvation and cannibalism through ilimmaqturniq.” Pp. 159-162 in Cosmology and Shamanism: Interviewing Inuit Elders, edited by B. S. d’Anglure. Iqaluit, NU: Nunavut Arctic College.
  
Mitchell, Marybelle. 1996. From Talking Chiefs to a Native Corporate Elite: The Birth of Class and Nationalism among Canadian Inuit. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Nelson, Odile. 2003. “Climate change erodes Inuit knowledge, researches say: Change in weather, change in health.” Nunatsiak News. January 24, 2007.
  
Niven, Jennifer. “Ada Blackjack: A True Story of Survival in the Arctic.”

Oosten, Jarich, Frédéric Laugrand, and Wim Rasing. 1999. Perspectives on Traditional Inuit Law, vol. 12. Iqaluit, NU: Nunavut Arctic College. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.
  
Parker, John. 1996. Arctic Power: The Path to Responsible Government in Canada’s North. Peterborough: The Cider Press.
  
Patrtridge, Shannon. 2002. “A Social History of Film-Making in the North.” in Introduction to Northern-Centred Sociology, edited by M. Flynn-Burhoe. Iqaluit, NU. http://www.carleton.ca/~mflynnbu/shannon_partridge/.
  
Pauktuutiit. 1991. Arnait, the Views of Inuit Women on Contemporary Issues. Ottawa, ON. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.
  
Rideout, Denise. 2001. “Nunavut’s Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit group gets started.” in Nunatsiak News. Iqaluit, NU. http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut010228/nvt10202_08.html.
  
Rousseliere, Guy Mary. 1950. “Monica Ataguttaaluk, Queen of Iglulik.” Eskimo 16:13.
  
Rowley, Graham. 1998. Cold Comfort: My Love Affair with the Arctic. Montreal/Kingston: McGill/Queen’s University Press. http://www.mqup.mcgill.ca/print_book.php?bookid=292.
  
Sissons, Jack. 1998. Judge of the Far North. The Memoirs of Jack Sissons. Toronto, ON. http://www.nunavut.com/traditionalknowledge/vol2/references.html.
  
Statscan. 2001. “Inuit population.” Ottawa, ON. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/analytic/companion/abor/groups3.cfm.
  
Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. 2005. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people of Canada.” Commission on Human Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/docs/61chr/E.CN.4.2005.88.Add.3.pdf.
 

SSCAP. 2001. Hearings to develop An Action Plan for Change: Urban Aboriginal Youth http://www.sen.parl.gc.ca/lpearson/htmfiles/hill/22_htm_files/v22_SenateStudy.htm

Steenhoven, Geert van den. 1958. Caribou Eskimo Law. Ottawa, ON: Department of Northern Affairs.
  
Wachowich, Nancy, Apphia Agalakti Awa, Rhoda Kaukjak Katsak, and Sandra Pikujak Katsak. 1999. Saqiyuq: Stories from the Lives of Three Inuit Women. Montreal/Kingston: McGill/Queen’s University Press.

WAG. 1982. Eskimo Point/Arviat. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery.

Watt-Cloutier, Sheila. 2004. “Climate Change and Human Rights.” Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs. http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID/8/prmID/4445.

Wenzel, George W. 1985. “Marooned in a Blizzard of Contradictions: Inuit and the Anti-Sealing Movement.” Etudes Inuit Studies. 9:1:77-92.

Wenzel, George W. 1991. Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. Toronto/Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. 206pp.
  
Tester, James and Peter Kulchyski. 1994. Tammarniit (Mistakes): Inuit Relocation in the Eastern Arctic 1939-63.Vancouver: UBC Press.

 


Le Devoir has invited authors to use the tools of philosophy to examine contentious current events. Montreal philosophy professor, Jean Laberge (2007), tackles missionary ecologists in the wake of UN report by invoking the work of the Scottish empiricist and Enlightenment philosopher David Hume (1716-1776). Laberge based his argument on Hume’s meta-ethics, his is-ought problem.

Laberge (2007) questions the way in which Al Gore, the Pope in this fight against climate change, has turned the issue into a moral imperative. Laberge claims that according to Hume, the statement that global warming is bad is erroneous. It is a confusion between descriptive (is) and prescriptive (ought) statements. The planet is getting warmer. We cannot logically deduce from that, that humans ought to modify behaviour to diminish the impact of climate change. According to Hume’s anthropocentrism, the human faculty of reason serves human interest exclusively, not the environment. “For what does reason discover, when it pronounces any action vicious? Does it discover a relation or a matter of fact? (Hume 1739-40). Facts in themselves are value neutral. Logically, in order to decide whether something is good or bad, there must be a moral sensitivity upon which a judgment could be made. The ‘environment’ is not endowed with a moral sensitivity as humans are.

Logiquement, pour juger qu’une chose est bonne ou mauvaise, il doit y avoir une sensibilité morale à partir de laquelle un jugement de valeur peut être rendu. Or, au contraire de l’humain, l’«environnement» ne dispose pas d’une telle sensibilité morale (Laberge 2007).

In the socio-historical context in which Hume was writing he was concerned with distinguishing vulgar reasoning from true philosophy. He argued that there were four sciences: logic, morals, criticism, and politics. He claimed that morals do not result from logical reason and judgment but from tastes, sentiments, feelings and passions.

Hume distinguishes also between a vulgar [thinker who uses only common language] who proposes a system of morality and a true philosopher, between the thinking of a peasant and a true artisan. Vulgar reasoning shifts from ‘is’ to ‘ought’ imperceptibly without giving a proper explanation or producing evidence.

“In every system of morality, which I have hitherto met with, I have always remarked, that the author proceeds for some time in the ordinary way of reasoning, and establishes the being of a God, or makes observations concerning human affairs; when of a sudden I am surprized to find, that instead of the usual copulations of propositions, is, and is not, I meet with no proposition that is not connected with an ought, or an ought not. This change is imperceptible; but is, however, of the last consequence. For as this ought, or ought not, expresses some new relation or affirmation, it is necessary that it should be observed and explained; and at the same time
that a reason should be given, for what seems altogether inconceivable, how this new relation can be a deduction from others, which are entirely different from it. But as authors do not commonly use this precaution, I shall presume to recommend it to the readers; and am persuaded, that this small attention would subvert all the vulgar systems of morality, and let us see, that the distinction of vice and virtue is not founded merely on the relations of objects, nor is perceived by reason (Hume).”

Is Laberge suggesting that Gore is a vulgar thinker who has not provided enough evidence for his case? In the case of climate change the science is overwhelmingly clear.

And humans do have the moral sensitivities which are the basis for making ethical decisions. We also have reason and scientific tools that provide us with experience-based evidence that informs our moral choices. Even Hume describes a political will, a social covenant in which citizens consult and agree upon a common ‘moral’ action.  We are not conscious of most of our mundane, everyday moral choices. Failing to protect forests or watersheds is a moral choice. A couple of decades ago most of us were insensitive to the moral nature of our actions that were destructive to ecosystems. In complex ecological issues where so many political, economics, geography, social and cultural interests converge, we consider ethical dimensions. Science can provide tools for measuring forest regeneration and efficient technologies for implementation. But science itself is not invested with moral sensitivity. It is only through human moral sensitivities that value judgments can be made in regards to unintended risks or side effects. Once science has provided evidence of shared, heightened risks we move from mere truth claims to moral justification for action or inaction.

Notes:

Keywords: Hume, philosophy, epistemology, ecology, is-ought, meta-ethics,

Webliography

Markie, Peter. 2004. “Rationalism vs. Empiricism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Hume, David. 1739-40. “Footnote 13.”Treatise of Human Nature.

Laberge, Jean. 2007. “Le devoir de philo: le scepticisme de Hume contre les écolos.” Le Devoir. 19 mai.


The Canadian business community has taken the most active interest in politics at the CEO level than any other business community in in the world (d’Acquino cited in Brownlee 2005: 9 Newman 1998:159-160). And this interest and influence has been on the rise in the last decades. Canada’s business community has had more influence on Canadian public policy in the years 1995-2005 then in any other period since 1900.

Look at what we stand for and look at what all the governments, all the major parties . . . have done, and what they want to do. They have adopted the agendas we’ve been fighting for the in the past few decades (cited in Brownlee 2005: 12 Newman 1998:151).

Tom D’Acquino should know as he is the CEO of the Canadian Council of Chief Executives.

While the average North American is becoming increasingly concerned by climate change, a recent report by Pricewaterhouse Coopers has found that fewer than a fifth – 18 per cent – of North American chief executives are concerned about climate change putting them increasingly out of step with their colleagues in Europe and Asia Pacific.

This a current list of the Chief Executive Officers of the Officers of the Board of Directors of the Canadian Council of Chief Executives:

  • Dominic D’Alessandro, Vice Chair Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) and President and CEO Manulife Financial
  • Thomas d’Aquino, Chief Executive Officer and President of Canadian Council of Chief Executives
  • Paul Desmarais. Jr. Vice Chair President of Canadian Council of Chief Executives and Chairman and C0-Chief Executive Officer of Power Corporation of Canada
  • Richard L. George, Honorary Chair Canadian Council of Chief Executives and President and CEO of Suncor Energy Inc.
  • Jacques Lamarre, Vice Chair of Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) and President and CEO SNC-Lavalin Group, Inc.
  • Gordon M. Nixon, Chair of Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) and President and CEO of Royal Bank of Canada
  • Hartley T. Richardson Vice Chair of Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) and President and CEO of James Richardson and Sons, Ltd.
  • Annette Verschuren Vice Chair of Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) and President of The Home Depot Canada

Selected bibliography

  • Brownlee, Jamie. 2005. Ruling Canada: Corporate Cohesion and Democracy. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.
  • Brownlee’s (2005) publication stems from his MA thesis supervised by University of Manitoba Sociology Professor Greg Olsen. It builds on the work of William Carroll, Wallace Clement and Murray Dobbin. I highly recommend this book for teaching, learning and research on how Ottawa really works. Some of the well-constructed arguments are located in sections entitled: economic cohesion and the structure of corporate capital, mergers and acquisitions, interlocking directorates, a class conscious business elite, public policy formation network, Canadian Council of Chief Executives, Global policy organizations, advocacy think tanks and economic elite, corporate social responsibility and the role of states in the era of globalization. The bibliography is a book in itself. The appendices, Media-Corporate Director Board Interlocks and Think Tanks – Corporate Director Board Interlocks for 2003 provide missing pieces to a puzzle.

  • Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2006.Media and Objectivity: a Selected Timeline of Events
  • Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2005. Interview with Jamie Brownlee in response to Globe and Mail article “Canada’s top 10% pay 52% of total tax bill.”
  • Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “King of Canada: Tom d’Acquino CEO of CEO’s” Google Docs and Spreadsheet. mirror
  • “The Globe and Mail Weekly Appointment Review.” Globe and Mail. January 22, 2007. p. B6
  • Hackett, Robert A. and Gruneau, Richard. 2000. The Missing News: Filters and Blind Spots in Canada. Ottawa: Centre for Policy Alternatives/Garamond Press Inc.
  • Hackett, Robert A. and Zhao, Yuezhi. 1998. Sustaining Democracy? Journalism and the Politics of Objectivity. Toronto: Garamond Press Inc.
  • I first read this book while preparing to teach a Northern-centred introductory human rights course in Iqaluit, Nunavut. My students were often employees of the Nunavut Government involved in making history as they introduced their own human rights bill. I wanted the inconvenient truth claims in Hackett and Zhao to be illegitimate but their research was unfortunately very robust. I thought I lived in a country whose forms of democratic governance were maturing until I read how we were actually going backwards not forwards in terms of objectivity and mass media.

    These recent shifts in media ownership and policy might be seen as the equivalent of a non-violent coup d’etat, a metaphor evoking the inherent link between media power and state power — between the colonization of the popular imagination and the allocation of social resources through public policy and market relations. Communications scholar Herbert Schiller suggests that what is at stake is “packaged consciousness”: the intensified appropriation of the national symbolic environment by a “few corporate juggernauts in the consciousness business (Hackett and Zhao 1998:5)

  • N/A. 2007. “U.S bosses out of step on climate change.” Management-Issues
  • Newman, Peter. 1975. The Canadian Establishment. Toronto: Mclelland and Stewart.
  • Newman, Peter. 1975. The Canadian Establishment. Toronto: Mclelland and Stewart.
  • Newman, Peter. 1981. The Acquisitors.. Toronto: Mclelland and Stewart.
  • Newman, Peter. 1998. Titans: How the New Establishment Seized Power. Toronto: Penguin Books.
  • Olsen, Gregg. 1991. “Labour Mobilization and the Strength of Capital: The Rise and Stall of Economic Democracy in Sweden.” Studies in Political Economy. 34.
  • Olsen, Gregg. 2002. The Politics of the Welfare State: Canada, Sweden and the United States.. Toronto: Oxford University Press.