I work with so many Web 2.0 applications I forget them so this post as an update on what I am still finding useful after 4 years of uploading, posting, tagging, linking, etc, using digital technologies including proprietorial (EndNote, Adobe Creative Suite, Windows) and open source (WordPress, Flickr, Delicious, Slideshare, Picassa and a myriad of Google products). Although my resources are meant to be shared, these technologies help me to trace how a my own cartography of mind organically evolves. They also serve as a mnemonic devices, a virtual memory palace.

Endnote1 is still my preferred entry point for new reference material and the easiest to search. I’ve created a library just for 2009 but this can be easily integrated into my entire library. I would like to add all of my timeline entries into Endnote as I did with Inuit Social History, Museology, etc. I need to have precise ethnoclassification first so I can find them.

Notes

1. I had hoped to replace this proprietorial software with another open source but I have been using EndNote since the early 1990s. My post Zotero versus Endnote is still one of my most visited.

Webliography and Bibliography

Shortlink for this post http://wp.me/p1TTs-im


In a widely read article1 Montreal Law Professor Dumont (2001) wrote, “How can our criminal laws better reflect the public’s concern for safety, while promoting their desire for a democratic society based on peace, liberty, tolerance and justice? To accomplish this goal, legislators and the Canadian public as a whole, should try to apply more reason than fear in developing criminal law infrastructure for safety. They must recognize the symbolic and political power of criminal laws, and determine the effectiveness of each punitive measure in terms of securing personal and public safety. Finally, legislators must always choose the solutions that will result in a peaceful, free, tolerant, and just society (Dumont 2001 ).”

The Canadian public supports mandatory sentences more as a way of denouncing crime than deterring it. Two out of three Canadians support mandatory minimum penalties even if research showed they would not reduce the likelihood of re-offence and 74 per cent of Canadians think sentencing is too lenient (Crutcher, Roberts, Verbrugge 2007).

In May 2006 the Canadian Minister of Justice talked about tackling crime and restoring confidence in the justice system. Law professor Peter Rosenthal questioned the degree to which harsher penalties were being promoted out of political interest in response to popular opinion and lacking in evidence-based research (SCJHR 2006).

“The most conclusive study on mandatory minimum sentences was conducted for the Solicitor General of Canada, by Mr. Crutcher and Mr. Tabor. These studies are very clear: mandatory minimum sentences do not act as deterrent, nor do they have an incidence when it comes to reoffending. There is no doubt about this. There is a whole host of studies demonstrating that they do not work. This bill is ideologically based and attempts to give a false sense of security (Réal Ménard to the SCJHR 2006:34).”

Keywords: sociology, justice and human rights, public policy, evidence-based, social exclusion, at-risk to social exclusion, criminology, tough-on-crime, anti-crime, media and crime reporting, aboriginals and crime, mental illness, mandatory minimum sentences, political attractiveness,

Footnotes

1. The article was cited at the Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights (2006) as capturing LEAF’s position on Bill C-10.

Timeline

1980s “[I]n the late 1980s, the Canadian Bar Association issued a report called Locking Up Natives in Canada. One of the things they found in that report, looking at Saskatchewan, was that—and all these figures have gotten much worse—aboriginal youth in Saskatchewan are more likely to go to jail than to graduate from high school. The point was made in that report that jails were becoming our contemporary residential schools. That is certainly true [in 2006], as we see 22% of inmates in Canada being aboriginals. Those numbers are up. Every year, those numbers go up (SCJHR 2006).”

2005 There were 10 gun-related murders and 45 shootings in Jamestown, a small Toronto neighbourhood. Toronto police apprehended 106 members of the Jamestown Crew in 2006. Since then there have been no murders in Jamestown and very few shootings. [. . .T]he truly violent are a relatively small number. In Jamestown [the police] kept about 45 people in custody [in the summer of 2006] summer and the level of violent crime in that community plummeted by over 50% (SCJHR 2006:4, 8 ).

2006In May 2006 the Canadian Minister of Justice talked about tackling crime and restoring confidence in the justice system. There was question about the degree to which harsher penalties were being promoted out of political self interest in response to popular opinion (SCJHR 2006).

2006 Gun-related homicides in Canada fell by 16 per cent (CanWest 2007).

2006 22% of inmates in Canadian prisons are aboriginals.

2007 Statistics Canada’s website reported in July, 2007 that “Canada’s overall national crime rate, based on incidents reported to police, hit its lowest point in over 25 years in 2006, driven by a decline in non-violent crime. The crime rate dropped by 3%, mainly due to declines in break-ins, thefts under $5,000 and counterfeiting. The national crime rate has decreased by about 30% since peaking in 1991. The rate fell in every province and territory, with the largest drops reported in Prince Edward Island, Alberta, New Brunswick, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The total violent crime rate remained virtually unchanged from 2005, mainly due to the stability in the rate of minor assaults, which account for 6 in 10 violent crimes. The national homicide rate fell 10%, halting two years of increases. However, increases were reported in many serious violent crimes such as attempted murder, aggravated assault, assault with a weapon, robbery and kidnapping/forcible confinement. The property crime rate dropped 4% from 2005, as the rate of break-ins fell 5% to its lowest level in over 30 years. The rate of motor vehicle theft also declined, down 2%. The crime rate among young persons aged 12 to 17 rose 3% in 2006, the first increase since 2003. The rise was driven by increases in mischief and disturbing the peace. The rate of young people accused of homicide was the highest since 1961, when data were first collected. Statistics Canada bases their [. . .] In Canada, there are two primary sources of statistical information on crime: police-reported surveys and victimization surveys completed by Canadians from randomly selected households. This report is based on police-reported data released today in an annual Juristat by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS). Data on incidents that come to the attention of the police are captured and forwarded to the CCJS via the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey according to a nationally-approved set of common scoring rules, categories and definitions. UCR data are available back to 1962 for the nation, provinces and territories, and to 1991 at the census metropolitan area (CMA) level (homicide data are available back to 1981 at the CMA level (SC 2007).”

Webliography and Bibliography

CanWest News Service. 2007. “Tory crime bill a solution in search of a problem, criminologists argue.” November 23. Ottawa, Canada.

Crutcher, Nicole; Roberts, Julian V.; Verbrugge, Paul. 2007. “Public attitudes to sentencing in Canada: exploring recent findings.” Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Jan 01, 2007.

Online abstract: “This article reports findings from two representative public-opinion surveys that explored Canadians’ attitudes toward three important sentencing issues: the severity of sentencing; the purposes of sentencing; and mandatory sentences of imprisonment. As has been found by polls over the past 30 years, most Canadians believe that sentencing practices are too lenient. The same result emerged from a poll conducted in 2005: 74% of respondents held the view that sentencing is too lenient–a finding consistent with polls conducted throughout the 1980s. With respect to the purposes of sentencing, … (CJCCJ 2007)”

Dumont, Helene. 2001. “Disarming Canadians, and Arming them with Tolerance: Banning Firearms and Minimum Sentences to Control Violent Crime, An Essay on an Apparent Contradiction.” Osgoode Hall Law Journal. 39:2 & 3.

Dumont, Helene. 1997. “Disarming Canadians, and Arming them with Tolerance: Banning Firearms and Minimum Sentences to Control Violent Crime, An Essay on an Apparent Contradiction.” First published in French.

Doob, Anthony N.; Carla Cesaroni. 2001. “The Political Attractiveness of Mandatory Minimum Sentences.” Osgoode Hall Law Journal. 39:295.

Fekete, Jason. 2007. “Alberta draws strategy to bust crime boom.” Calgary Herald. November 11.

Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights (SCJHR). 2006. Evidence. November 23. No. 034. 1st Session of 39th Parliament of Canada. Ottawa, Canada.

Statistics Canada (SC). 2007. The Daily.


Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “It’s not politically attractive but more reason, less fear needed in developing criminal law.” >> Google docs. November 24.Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “It’s not politically attractive but more reason, less fear needed in developing criminal law.” >> Speechless. November 24.


Speechless is now on WordPress’ list of Growing Blogs with 22,854 viewers. My first entry was entitled “Navigation Tools for the Blogosphere” and as I approach Speechless’ first anniversary I’ve just begun to use two new Open Source applications, CiteULike and Flexlists. I had attempted Zotero as a replacement for my huge EndNote library but I somehow lost the new library when I switched computers. CiteULike is all on-line and annotates references for me in formats used by academics. It also allows me to enter my CiteULike entries into my EndNote database. So far I’ve just been experimenting with compiling references on the concept of “memory work” in My Webliography and Bibliography. I have been contributing to building on-line resources of the concept “memory work” on wikipedia, deli.cio.us, WordPress, Googles Customized Search and Swicki.

I’ve also begun a list of key concepts on Flexlists which I prefer to call My Organic Glossary since it will mutate as my understanding of terms matures, deepens and develops through further teaching, learning and research.

I had attempted to use Babylon as an Open Source on-line build-your-own-glossary but realized that it is not actually free. It offers a limited introductory period followed by a pay-to-use plan. It would have been frustrating to invest time in building a glossary only to lose access to it!

I’ve started investing more time into my Google Customized Search on “Memory Work” and added Adsense. I have added refinements to it through labels: health, academic, article, museology, Inuit,


September 2007

Paper Girls: “Deborah Barndt”; “Sheila Watt-Cloutier”; .rss Aboriginal Women in Canada academic capital ADHD Adobe Photoshop Adsense African Canadian history algorithms animal rights vs human rights anthropology Arctic exiles Art art & science artengine Atkinson Foundation Bakhtin BC gulf islands Beck, Ulrich Beckett Beijing Platform for Action benign colonialism blog lexicon blogging Blogosphere Blogroll Book reviews British Columbia Buber Campaign 2000 Canada’s nasty secrets Canadian Policy Research Network CBC child poverty CHRC Chronologies citationography ClearForest Gnosis climate change collaborative communal archives Congo-Brazzaville Conrad Black cosmos CPRN Creative.Commons critical ethnography critical Inuit studies CulturalAnthropology cyber citizens cyberdelirium Dashboard Davis Inlet Dear Frankie Deep Internet deep space del.icio.us Derrida Derrida, Jacques Deus Absconditus Dialogic Journal digg story digg.com digitage disambiguation doorbells East/West ecology economic efficiency model Education EndNote ethical topography of self ethical topography of self and the Other ethical topology of Self Ethical Topology of Self and the Other Ethical Topology of Self and the Other-I Ethical turn ethics and science ethnoclassification everyday.life existence precedes essence Faulty Ivory Towers Fear Industry fiction First Nations First Nations social history flickr Flicktion Florence folksonomies folksonomy forgetting Fraser Institute Freudian.slip Gadamer Geotagging German romantics Globalization on the Tomato Trail Gnosis Gnostic Goethe Google grant capital Gulf Islands Habermas Halévy, Daniel Hartley Bay heimlich Hidden Internet homelessness Horizons. Public Works and Government Services Canada hospitality how to be poor in a rich country HTML Hulquminum human nature human rights ICC icerocket ideology intellectual capital internet media Inuit Inuit Art Quarterly Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) Inuit social histories Inuit social history Invisible Web is-ought Jane Jenson Jean-Pierre Voyer Jonathan Yang Jung Kuper Island land claims Le Devoir Levinas Madeleine Dion-Stout Make Poverty History Marie Wadden Martin Buber mass media Measuring Money media objectivity memory Memory Work meta-ethics Micro Persuasion Microsoft Minimum rage minimum wage moderate civil religions moral mathematics nanuq NASA neuroscience New York Times Nietzschean Nora, Pierre Novalis Nunatsiaq News Nunavut OECD open source Orchidelirium Other-Eye Other-I panopticon Perelman Risk PhD attrition Philosophy Pierre Bourdieu Pierre Wallot Policy Development policy research Political Philosophy politics and science postcolonial postnational pro bloggers’ tips psychoanalysis Public Policy public vs private qualia Queen of the North rapture of the deep internet RCAP readwriteweb reflexivity refugees Reitz relativity relocations Ricoeur Ripple.Effect Risk Management Risk Society Robert Harris romanticism Rony John Satellite Images search engine optimization semantic markup semantic web SEO Shields.Rob Sinking the Queen of the North Skepticism Slander slow world social capital social exclusion Social Justice Spacetime Statistics Canada Status of Women Canada Steve Rubel SWC Tag Clouds tagging Tangled Roots Taylor, Charles Technology. Mind and Consciousness Technorati technorati tag The Economist theologically non-threatening theology Think Tanks thinking press vs mass media Timelines Toolbox ubiquitous computing UHNW Uncategorized unframed works on paper Unpublished papers urban ethnography virtual visual anthropology Visual Arts Discipline Visual.Arts visualizations vulnerability to social exclusion Waiting for Godot wealth disparities in OECD Web 2.0 webliographies wiki wikipedia XHTML youtube zotero

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cartography Changeux charles.taylor child.poverty chronology circumpolar citations civil.religion Civil.Society classification climate.change clustering code cognition cognoscendi colbert collaboration colonialism colonization communal.memory concept.map Congo Congo-Brazzaville Connectivity Conrad.Black consciousness consequentialism.vs.deontology contemporary.art ContentVSConnectivity cooperatives copyright cosmopolitical Cowichan Cowichan.Bay Cowichan.Valley Creative.Commons critique CRTC CSS cultural.anthropology cultural.industry cultural.studies culture cyberdelerium cyberworld daily Damasio darfur dawkins deep.internet Del.icio.us Delacroix delicious delirium democracy dennett Derrida Design determinism digg.story Dilthey distorted.histories Douglas.fir Douglas.Stan dreams drinking.water.advisory drury Duncan dystopia east.west ecology economic.efficiency economics economy education Ejesiak emotions empiricism EndNote enlightenment environment episteme Epistemology Escher escutcheon ethical.topography.of.self ethical.touchstone ethical.turn ethics ethics.vs.morals ethnobotany ethnoclassification Etienne.Balibar Everyday.Life evolution evolution.creationism excerpt Exhibition.Reviews experience experience.vs. extremes.wealth.poverty faceted.tagging faith family.geneaology FAQ fear fear.industry feelings Fiction film Finlayson First.Nations first.nations.land.use.and.occupancy flickr flicktion Flynn flynn-burhoe folksonomies folksonomy forgetting Foucault France free.will freeware Freud Friedrich Frimr full-text garry.oak garry.oak.wildflowers Gather genes Genesis32 geotagging geotags German.romanticism Germany Gide gide.forster.wallas globalization gmf God God-delusion Goethe google Google.Earth google.video googleearth governance Gutenberg.project habits happiness Harvard HBC healing health Heidegger hermeneutics historia history hospitality housing housing.market hubs hudsons.bay.company human.nature human.rights hume Identity ideology illustration images individualism inescutsheon internet internet.tools inuit Inuit.art Inuit.social.histories jacob John.Stuart.Mill jung kant keyword.mnemonics Kinsol.Trestle learning Leibnitz Levi-Strauss Levinas library linguistics literature live.search loci macintyre.alasdair mapping maps marx Mass.Media mass.media.vs.thinking.press materialism media media.concentration media.convergence media.objectivity Medicinal.plants memorization memory Memory.Palace Memory.Work mental.health.reform Metablogger metadata metaheadline methodology MFB milton.acorn mind Mind.Body Mind.Brain Mind.Machine Mind.Map mise.en.abime mise.en.abyme, mnemonics moderate.civil.religion modernism Modernity monbiot moral.mathematics moral.philosophy moral.topography Mount.Tzuhalem museums music my.bloggy.life Mythologies narrative narrative.psychology narrative.self narratology nasiq natalie.neill nation-state nationalism neoconservative Neuropsychology neuroscience news nietzsche Nora nunavut Nussbaum nyt oceanflynns.blogosphere OECD onfray.michel ontology OpenSource Other-I PAR Paris.Match Participatory.Action.Research phantom.limb PhD phenomenology philosophy Pinker Pinker.vs.Fodor pinto.madness Plato poetry police policy.research Political.Philosophy politics positive.psychology post-nationalism Post-WWII postcolonial postmodernism postnationalism Powdthavee Power pragmatism psychoanalysis psychology public.policy public.versus.private qualia Quebec racism radler RCAP readwriteweb realism reasonable.accomodations reconciliation reconfiguring.rivers reference reflexivity religion religion.politics religion.science research Reviews Ricoeur ripple.effect ripples romanticism rorty rss Sarah.Ekoomiak science science.politics science.religion search search.engine searchengine searchengines Searle Self semantic.web semantic_web semiotic.triangle semiotics SEO SeriesZ Shields.Rob slideshare slow.world Social.Capital social.exclusion Social.History Social.Justice social.psychology Social.Sciences social.search sociological.imagination Sociology Socrates Software sooke soul.mind.spirit speechless Spinoza spirituality standards strauss strickling Studio.Ghibli Suriy-i-Haykal swicki Synapses Tag.Clouds tagging tags taxonomy taylor.charles technology Technorati television theory TimberWest tools Trocadero tsouke Tzuhalem ubicomp Ubiquitous.Computing unheimlich unquisition urban Urquhart utopia values Vancouver.Island Victoria video virtual Virtual.Synapses virtue.ethics virtues visual.arts visualization vulnerability.to.social.exclusion Water.Drop.Ripples watershed web web.design web2.0 web3.0 webliography white.collar.crime wiki wikipedia wild.flowers wildflowers william.james wolfowitz wordpress wordpress.featured.tags World.bank world.citizen WorldBank xenophobia Yerushalmi youtube zotero

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.pdf 19th.century 2.0 A1Blogger A4R Abdul.Baha About academia academic academic.capitalism Academic.Journal accountability Accountability.for.Reasonableness acrylics Adobe.Photoshop aesthetics Aflicktion Africa African.Canadian aggregator Algeria altruism amnesty.international analysis and Anderson.Benedict anemone.patens angelou animation anime anne.galloway anthropology apolitical Appadurai April.Fool arche architecture archives Aristotle art art.thought article artist at.risk.populations attitudes authenticity authorities authority auto-portrait autobiography bahai bahai.library Bal Balibar Bare.Metal Baroque Barthes bauman bcflora beacon.hill belonging benign.colonialism Bennington bergson biology black.conrad black.history Blog blog.glossary, blog.lexicon, blog.reactions blogger blogging blogging.definitions blogging.terms, blogosphere blogspot bloom blue.flower Book.Reviews borges Bouchard-Taylor Bourdieu brain British.Columbia business calgary Canada Canadian.business cartography Changeux charles.taylor child.poverty chronology circumpolar citations civil.religion Civil.Society classification climate.change clustering code cognition cognoscendi colbert collaboration colonialism colonization communal.memory concept.map Congo Congo-Brazzaville Connectivity Conrad.Black consciousness consequentialism.vs.deontology contemporary.art ContentVSConnectivity cooperatives copyright cosmopolitical Cowichan Cowichan.Bay Cowichan.Valley Creative.Commons critique CRTC CSS cultural.anthropology cultural.industry cultural.studies culture cyberdelerium cyberworld daily Damasio darfur dawkins deep.internet Del.icio.us Delacroix delicious delirium democracy dennett Derrida Design determinism digg.story Dilthey distorted.histories Douglas.fir Douglas.Stan dreams drinking.water.advisory drury Duncan dystopia east.west ecology economic.efficiency economics economy education Ejesiak emotions empiricism EndNote enlightenment environment episteme Epistemology Escher escutcheon ethical.topography.of.self ethical.touchstone ethical.turn ethics ethics.vs.morals ethnobotany ethnoclassification Etienne.Balibar Everyday.Life evolution evolution.creationism excerpt Exhibition.Reviews experience experience.vs. extremes.wealth.poverty faceted.tagging faith family.geneaology FAQ fear fear.industry feelings Fiction film Finlayson First.Nations first.nations.land.use.and.occupancy flickr flicktion Flynn flynn-burhoe folksonomies folksonomy forgetting Foucault France free.will freeware Freud Friedrich Frimr full-text garry.oak garry.oak.wildflowers Gather genes Genesis32 geotagging geotags German.romanticism Germany Gide gide.forster.wallas globalization gmf God God-delusion Goethe google Google.Earth google.video googleearth governance Gutenberg.project habits happiness Harvard HBC healing health Heidegger hermeneutics historia history hospitality housing housing.market hubs hudsons.bay.company human.nature human.rights hume Identity ideology illustration images individualism inescutsheon internet internet.tools inuit Inuit.art Inuit.social.histories jacob John.Stuart.Mill jung kant keyword.mnemonics Kinsol.Trestle learning Leibnitz Levi-Strauss Levinas library linguistics literature live.search loci macintyre.alasdair mapping maps marx Mass.Media mass.media.vs.thinking.press materialism media media.concentration media.convergence media.objectivity Medicinal.plants memorization memory Memory.Palace Memory.Work mental.health.reform Metablogger metadata metaheadline methodology MFB milton.acorn mind Mind.Body Mind.Brain Mind.Machine Mind.Map mise.en.abime mise.en.abyme, mnemonics moderate.civil.religion modernism Modernity monbiot moral.mathematics moral.philosophy moral.topography Mount.Tzuhalem museums music my.bloggy.life Mythologies narrative narrative.psychology narrative.self narratology nasiq natalie.neill nation-state nationalism neoconservative Neuropsychology neuroscience news nietzsche Nora nunavut Nussbaum nyt oceanflynns.blogosphere OECD onfray.michel ontology OpenSource Other-I PAR Paris.Match Participatory.Action.Research phantom.limb PhD phenomenology philosophy Pinker Pinker.vs.Fodor pinto.madness Plato poetry police policy.research Political.Philosophy politics positive.psychology post-nationalism Post-WWII postcolonial postmodernism postnationalism Powdthavee Power pragmatism psychoanalysis psychology public.policy public.versus.private qualia Quebec racism radler RCAP readwriteweb realism reasonable.accomodations reconciliation reconfiguring.rivers reference reflexivity religion religion.politics religion.science research Reviews Ricoeur ripple.effect ripples romanticism rorty rss Sarah.Ekoomiak science science.politics science.religion search search.engine searchengine searchengines Searle Self semantic.web semantic_web semiotic.triangle semiotics SEO SeriesZ Shields.Rob slideshare slow.world Social.Capital social.exclusion Social.History Social.Justice social.psychology Social.Sciences social.search sociological.imagination Sociology Socrates Software sooke soul.mind.spirit speechless Spinoza spirituality standards strauss strickling Studio.Ghibli Suriy-i-Haykal swicki Synapses Tag.Clouds tagging tags taxonomy taylor.charles technology Technorati television theory TimberWest tools Trocadero tsouke Tzuhalem ubicomp Ubiquitous.Computing unheimlich unquisition urban Urquhart utopia values Vancouver.Island Victoria video virtual Virtual.Synapses virtue.ethics virtues visual.arts visualization vulnerability.to.social.exclusion Water.Drop.Ripples watershed web web.design web2.0 web3.0 webliography white.collar.crime wiki wikipedia wild.flowers wildflowers william.james wolfowitz wordpress wordpress.featured.tags World.bank world.citizen WorldBank xenophobia Yerushalmi youtube zotero

speechless wordpress.featured.tags ethics flynn-burhoe wordpress folksonomy philosophy consciousness memory folksonomies blogging internet images technology benign.colonialism Memory.Work ethical.turn web web2.0 Blog poetry media politics article moral.topography psychology Sociology collaboration ethical.topography.of.self flickr Derrida First.Nations science bcflora visualization Social.Justice bahai full-text neuroscience searchengine Technorati culture Political.Philosophy research taylor.charles blogosphere theory Creative.Commons at.risk.populations environment art charles.taylor google SEO Synapses blogger Del.icio.us history human.rights inuit Mind.Brain Mind.Body Reviews vulnerability.to.social.exclusion black.conrad Damasio democracy Design ethics.vs.morals John.Stuart.Mill religion Software Tag.Clouds wikipedia wolfowitz anthropology calgary climate.change google.video Identity media.objectivity radler Ricoeur sooke health housing.market mind phantom.limb post-nationalism racism slow.world Social.Sciences tagging tags Virtual.Synapses youtube Abdul.Baha Adobe.Photoshop happiness Mass.Media Modernity Shields.Rob taxonomy Vancouver.Island william.james bauman Bouchard-Taylor brain Connectivity economic.efficiency emotions governance mapping mental.health.reform mise.en.abime narrative onfray.michel public.policy rorty search.engine wildflowers Canada drinking.water.advisory economics Foucault mise.en.abyme, qualia tsouke visual.arts white.collar.crime 2.0 About academic Africa architecture art.thought authorities Book.Reviews colonialism critique Everyday.Life flicktion freeware globalization historia Inuit.art Levinas media.concentration memorization Metablogger oceanflynns.blogosphere Pinker science.religion Self strauss watershed wild.flowers WorldBank .pdf academia anne.galloway archives blue.flower citations cosmopolitical Cowichan Cowichan.Valley CSS cultural.studies dennett dystopia EndNote Epistemology feelings forgetting garry.oak hermeneutics hubs human.nature hume internet.tools Inuit.social.histories kant linguistics maps media.convergence Medicinal.plants mnemonics monbiot moral.mathematics narrative.psychology narratology nunavut phenomenology search social.exclusion Social.History sociological.imagination Spinoza spirituality Academic.Journal arche classification cognition cyberworld dawkins ethical.touchstone ethnoclassification evolution experience faceted.tagging Fiction first.nations.land.use.and.occupancy France Freud Gather Germany habits HBC housing hudsons.bay.company ideology individualism learning mass.media.vs.thinking.press MFB modernism moral.philosophy music news Nora Nussbaum OECD ontology Pinker.vs.Fodor Post-WWII postcolonial postmodernism postnationalism Quebec realism ripple.effect semantic.web semiotic.triangle semiotics slideshare social.psychology Tzuhalem Ubiquitous.Computing unquisition urban values video web.design webliography wiki African.Canadian analysis angelou bahai.library bergson borges cartography colbert communal.memory ContentVSConnectivity copyright cultural.anthropology cyberdelerium determinism distorted.histories Douglas.Stan education family.geneaology fear.industry garry.oak.wildflowers genes geotagging geotags gide.forster.wallas Goethe Harvard healing Heidegger Kinsol.Trestle literature materialism metaheadline methodology milton.acorn Mind.Machine Mythologies natalie.neill nation-state nationalism neoconservative Neuropsychology nietzsche OpenSource Plato positive.psychology pragmatism RCAP readwriteweb reconfiguring.rivers reference reflexivity religion.politics religion.science ripples Sarah.Ekoomiak searchengines Searle semantic_web social.search Socrates standards Trocadero ubicomp Victoria virtue.ethics World.bank Yerushalmi zotero 19th.century academic.capitalism aesthetics Algeria and anemone.patens anime Aristotle authenticity autobiography Bare.Metal beacon.hill belonging blogging.definitions bloom business Canadian.business Changeux code colonization Congo Congo-Brazzaville consequentialism.vs.deontology contemporary.art Cowichan.Bay cultural.industry daily deep.internet delicious dreams east.west economy Ejesiak Escher ethnobotany FAQ film Finlayson Flynn free.will Friedrich Frimr Genesis32 German.romanticism Gide gmf God God-delusion Google.Earth googleearth Gutenberg.project hospitality illustration inescutsheon jacob jung keyword.mnemonics Leibnitz Levi-Strauss library live.search loci macintyre.alasdair marx Memory.Palace metadata Mind.Map moderate.civil.religion Mount.Tzuhalem museums my.bloggy.life narrative.self nasiq nyt Other-I PAR Paris.Match Participatory.Action.Research PhD pinto.madness police policy.research Powdthavee Power psychoanalysis public.versus.private reasonable.accomodations reconciliation romanticism rss science.politics SeriesZ Social.Capital soul.mind.spirit strickling Studio.Ghibli Suriy-i-Haykal swicki television TimberWest tools unheimlich Urquhart utopia virtual virtues Water.Drop.Ripples web3.0 world.citizen xenophobia A1Blogger A4R accountability Accountability.for.Reasonableness acrylics Aflicktion aggregator altruism amnesty.international Anderson.Benedict animation apolitical Appadurai April.Fool artist attitudes authority auto-portrait Bal Balibar Baroque Barthes Bennington biology black.history blog.glossary, blog.lexicon, blog.reactions blogging.terms, blogspot Bourdieu British.Columbia child.poverty chronology circumpolar civil.religion Civil.Society clustering cognoscendi concept.map Conrad.Black cooperatives CRTC darfur Delacroix delirium digg.story Dilthey Douglas.fir drury Duncan ecology empiricism enlightenment episteme escutcheon Etienne.Balibar evolution.creationism excerpt Exhibition.Reviews experience.vs. extremes.wealth.poverty faith fear

Google Docs:

Accountability for Reasonableness,

Metadata is data about data that is at a higher level of abstraction than the data it is describing.

Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. Folksonomies: September 26, 2007 >> Speechless, Papergirls, Delicious http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=ddp3qxmz_373dpjdn7


In a Marketplace interview Amy Scott asked interviewees about the disturbing consequences of the interconnections between banks, hedge funds, high risk mortgages and pension funds. In June, 2007 two major hedge funds managed by the investment bank Bear Stearns, who purchased securities that were essentially a “repackaging of all kinds of risky mortgages” to tap into the subprime mortgage market are now verging on collapse as the number of borrowers defaulting on these mortgages increases. Joseph Mason explained that “this isn’t just a Wall Street problem. Your 401k or pension fund may be invested in similar mortgage-related securities.” The investor-base is broad and it is difficult to know who is at risk. “Investment managers don’t have to report their holdings. And unlike stocks, these securities aren’t quoted on an open market [. . .] Those hedge fund investment managers create investments that are bought by our pension funds and mutual funds. Charitable foundations are invested in these. It’s a broad investor base, and it’s not the rich versus the poor.” Mason has been a firm proponent of more transparency in financial dealings (Scott 2007).

Mason and Rosner (2007) warn that risk continues to increase, as ratings agencies revise their loss expectations to account for the dynamics of the mortgage meltdown. “Residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) market has experienced significant changes [from 1997-2007].” [T]hey caution that “structural changes in mortgage origination and servicing have interacted with complex residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) and highly volatile CDO funding structures to place the U.S. housing market at risk. This [. . .] could lead to prolonged domestic economic implications for U.S. standing in the world economic order [. . .] The potential for prolonged economic difficulties that also interfere with home ownership in the United States raises significant public policy concerns. Already we are witnessing restructuring and layoffs at top financial institutions. More importantly, however, is the need to provide stable funding sources for economic growth. The biggest obstacle that we have identified is lack of transparency.” (Mason and Rosner 2007).
Market analyst Winzer (2005 cited in Christie 2005) warned that the housing market was high-risk as the boom has already gone on longer than expected. Low interest rates which means cheap mortgage rates extended the cycle of the real estate boom artificially creating higher demand and higher prices as all market levels (Winzer cited in Christie 2005). “Winzer assesses local market risk by taking into account economic and population growth, construction costs, vacancy rates, and, especially, income. He also considers such factors as density and access to open land. Prices in densely settled New York have always been higher than those of cities with lots of space for new housing (Christie 2005).

 

Key words: mortgage meltdowns, Bear Stearns, Bubble economy, housing slump, mortgage helpers, democratization of debt,

Timeline

1965-2005 Between 1965 to 2005 there was no national US real-estate bust as home prices surpassed inflation by a percentage point or two on average. However local reversals have taken place and some cities have never recovered (Christie 2005).

1973-5 US investors in the S&P 500 lost 14% in 1973 and 26% in 1974 but gained 37% in 1975 (Mann 2000).

1970s “The additional grades or risk have arisen from the willingness to underwrite mortgages for more risky borrowers, encouraged by the democratization of credit since the 1970s. Lending to more risky borrowers is, by definition, more risky. More loans to risky borrowers increases the total amount of risk to be sold in the marketplace” (Mason and Rosner 2007).

1980-1990 In Los Angeles real estate was turbocharged for nearly 10 years (Christie 2005).

1985 In Peoria, Ill. a more traditional area the average home price fell from $60,800 in 1981 to $51,400 in 1985 partially because of

strikes and lay-offs at Caterpillar, the city’s biggest employer (Christie 2005).

1987 Canadian families saved 20 percent of their take-home pay (Ed 2007).

1987
Stock market crash

1988
In “oil patch” cities like Oklahoma City prices plummeted 26 percent from 1983 to 1988. They only returned to 1983 levels in 2003 fifteen years later. In Oklahoma City, the inflation-adjusted price in 1983 was $196,600. Today, it’s just $135,100 (Christie 2005).
1988 Houston home prices fell 22 percent from $111,000 in 1983 to $86,800 in 1988 rebounded only in 2003. Counting inflation, the average Houston home, which cost just $159,700 in 2004, is actually worth less [in 2005] than it was [in 1983]. When, adjusted for inflation, a home cost about $219,000 in 1983 (Christie 2005).

1988 – 1990s Real estate prices fell in Northern California first followed by the rest of the state “as employers fled, incomes dwindled, quakes rumbled, sales fell and prices slipped. [. . .] Silicon Valley’s housing market crashed into recession along with the state’s economy (Perkins 2001).

1989-90 The notorious price bubble of 1989-90 was linked to central banks specifically the Bank of Japan. “The Japanese economy continued to suffer during the early 1990s, and remained in recession until the end of 1993. Nominal GDP growth rates, which had been around 7 percent during the bubble period, fell beginning in 1990 and by 1991-93 were close to zero. Profits in the manufacturing sector fell 24.5 percent in 1991 and 32.1 percent in 1992. Bankruptcies began to rise starting in the latter half of 1990; by 1992, bankruptcies with debt more than Y10 million totaled 14,569 cases. Failures of real estate firms or of firms engaged in “active fund management” constituted more than half the corporate bankruptcies in 1991 and 1992 (Miller 2001).”

1991
Inflation-adjusted take-home pay in Canada froze to this level (Ed. 2007).”

1992 A new car in Canada cost $20, 000.

1992 – 2000 “Japan remained pretty stagnant in the last eight years, with the majority of the loss coming in the first two, when it eventually fell by more than 60%. There was never a big drop, just a constant and inexorable drift downward. Real estate prices plummeted, almost no Japanese company ended 1992 higher than it started 1990. In the interim, banks have failed (and if it weren’t for the financial props of the Japanese government, many more would have), and companies have had to reassess some of their basic assumptions, such as lifetime employment and large benefit packages” (Mann 2000).

1996
There was a housing market reversal in Los Angeles with average house price dropping from $222,200 in 1990 to $176,300 in 1996, a loss of 20.7 percent. “Furthermore, those are nominal prices, not real values. To calculate the loss more realistically you would have to figure in the cost of inflation: $222,200 in 1990 would have been worth $266,700 in 1996 dollars, which means the actual loss for homeowners buying in 1990 and selling in 1996 was closer to 34 percent (Christie 2005).”

1994- 1996 “In 1994, [Japanese] banks wrote off non-performing assets of Y5.7 trillion, exceeding the previous high of Y4.3 trillion in fiscal year 1993. As yet, no major bank has failed, although a number have reportedly encountered serious difficulties. In December, 1994, the Bank of Japan supervised the takeover of two credit cooperatives, the Tokyo Kyowa Credit Cooperative and the Anzen Credit Cooperative, through the creation of a bridge bank with government support. The Bank’s decision not to let these institutions fail and pay off depositors under the deposit guarantee program was based, largely, on concern for the potential systemic effects of a deposit payoff on public confidence in the banking system in general. The “jusen,” or housing finance banks, suffered the most serious problems; these institutions, which were typically organized and sponsored by major commercial banks and staffed, in part, by former officials from the Ministry of Finance, lost tens of billions of dollars as a result of the collapse of the price bubble, and became one of the most contentious political issues of the day during 1995-86 (Miller 2001)”.

1996

“How do we know when irrational exuberance has unduly escalated asset values, which then become subject to unexpected and prolonged contractions as they have in Japan over the past decade? And how do we factor that assessment into monetary policy? We as central bankers need not be concerned if a collapsing financial asset bubble does not threaten to impair the real economy, its production, jobs, and price stability. Indeed, the sharp stock market break of 1987 had few negative consequences for the economy. But we should not underestimate or become complacent about the complexity of the interactions of asset markets and the economy. Thus, evaluating shifts in balance sheets generally, and in asset prices particularly, must be an integral part of the development of monetary policy.”

- Alan Greenspan (December 5, 1996)**

1998 There was a market correction in the United States in October of 1998.

1992 – 2000 “Japan remained pretty stagnant in the last eight years, with the majority of the loss coming in the first two, when it eventually fell by more than 60%. There was never a big drop, just a constant and inexorable drift downward. Real estate prices plummeted, almost no Japanese company ended 1992 higher than it started 1990. In the interim, banks have failed (and if it weren’t for the financial props of the Japanese government, many more would have), and companies have had to reassess some of their basic assumptions, such as lifetime employment and large benefit packages” (Mann 2000).

2004 British Columbia graduates from university have an average debt of $20, 000.

2005 Real-estate investing spiked, pressuring prices upward. In Phoenix, according to Bill Jilbert, president and COO of the Coldwell Banker brokerage there, investors from Nevada and California have invaded the Arizona market, and “affordable housing has been pushed to extremes (Christie 2005).”

2000 In Tampa Bay Florida, high risk adjustable-rate mortgages (ARM) made homes “seem affordable when wages stagnated as prices soared. They were just the ticket for cash-out refinancings and home equity credit lines that bought cars and swimming pools and paid off credit card debt. “What happened in a lot of expensive real estate markets is that first-time home buyers who felt they could not afford a home otherwise, took on a loan that had lower monthly payments than a traditional mortgage would have,” said Allen Fishbein, director of housing policy for the Consumer Federation of America. “They weren’t being underwritten on the basis of the borrower’s reasonable capacity to handle these loans.” The payments started out manageable, especially since many loans offered teaser rates. But borrowers are getting a lesson in what the word “adjustable” means. More than $130-billion in mortgages payments were reset in 2006″ In 2006 nearly a third of Tampa Bay mortgages were the high-risk varieties, up from 10 percent in 2003 (Huntley 2006).

1991- 2005 “[I]ncreased complexity from increased grading of risk can also result in increased opacity. Risk that is more difficult to see, by virtue of complexity, is risk just the same. There are plenty of reasons to believe that the amount of risk in the marketplace has increased. Figure 3 shows that defaults on ABS and residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) increased substantially between 1991 and 2005″ (Mason and Rosner 2007).

2006 Fitch Global Structured Finance 1991-2005 Default Study revealed that, “the overwhelming majority of global structured finance defaults over the 1991-2005 period were from the U.S., accounting for more than 97 percent of the total. While the 1,000 U.S. defaults were mainly concentrated in the Asset-Backed Securities._ (ABS) sector, the 27 international defaults were primarily from the collateralized debt obligations (CDO) sector.” See Mason and Rosner (2007) warn that risk continues to increase, as ratings agencies revise their loss expectations to account for the dynamics of the mortgage meltdown. For instance, on March 27, Standard & Poor’s raised its expectation for losses on 1.

2006 In Florida millions of homeowners were warned of the mortgage meltdown in which they will “face a financial nightmare brought on by a combination of higher interest rates, risky mortgages and a housing market gone cold (Huntley 2006).

2007 Since 1991 inflation-adjusted hourly wages rose only 10 cents (Ed. 2007).”

2007 A new car in Canada cost $32,000 a 60 percent increase from 1992 (Ed. 2007).”

2007 Canadians collectively owe three quarters of a trillion dollars in personal debt. Canadian families not only have no savings, they draw on pension savings to make ends meet.

“The result of the easy credit is that an average family now owes far more than it takes in. That means we remain solvent only so long as the book value of our assets — things like our home, pension funds or investments — continue to increase (Ed. 2007).”

2007 British Columbia graduates from university have an average debt of $27, 000.

2007
It is now acceptable for Canadian families to pay 60 percent of income to pay monthly payments of their home mortgages (Ed. 2007).

2007 The British Columbia government will allow home owners who are over 55 to defer property tax payments for as long as they live. The government will claim unpaid taxes after you die or sell effectively placing the tax burden on the children (Ed. 2007).

2007 “The number of corporate failures in Japan rose for the third month in a row totaling 896 cases in December up 18.2%. November flops were up 6.5% and the number of companies going belly up in October were up 7.8%. The amount of debts the insolvent companies left behind were up 30.6% to 463.09 billion yen (Belew 2007).

2007 In March Bob Lawless reported in his blog that, “The folks at Automated Access to Court Electronic Records or AACER regularly collect data from all the bankruptcy courts for creditors and attorneys. They have a wealth of information that does not show up in the mainstream media. Most recently, they tell me that there were 58,640 total U.S. bankruptcy filings in February 2007 as compared to 55,088 total U.S. bankruptcy filings in January 2007. OK, that looks like a slight increase, but looks are deceiving. It’s actually a fairly hefty increase. The February filings were spread over only nineteen business days while the January filings were spread over twenty-one days. On a daily basis, the February filings were up 17.7% as compared to January (Lawless 2007).”


2007
Jayson Seth analysed data in National Association of Realtors (NAR) June 24, 2007 report. Seth argues that “America’s easy-credit, quick-flipping, borrow-now-and-forget-the-consequences lifestyle is coming to an increasingly painful, grinding halt” and the “confidence of homebuilders is at a 16-year low (Seth 2007).”

2007 Lawrence Yun, National Association of Realtors announced that the real estate market is softening due to psychological factors, tighter credit for subprime borrowers. NAR’s Lawrence Yun explained that since late 2006 housing sales have slowed as buyers double up with family, friends or just mortgage helper units in their homes to be able to pay for higher-priced homes.

2007 Mason and Rosner (2007) warn that risk continues to increase, as ratings agencies revise their loss expectations to account for the dynamics of the mortgage meltdown. For instance, on March 27, Standard & Poor’s raised its expectation for losses on 1. “Residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) market has experienced significant changes [from 1997-2007]” Furthermore they caution that “structural changes in mortgage origination and servicing have interacted with complex RMBS and highly volatile CDO funding structures to place the U.S. housing market at risk. Equally as important, however, is that housing market weaknesses feed back through financial markets to further weaken financial instruments backing today’s CDOs. Decreased housing starts that will result from lower liquidity in the MBS sector will further weaken credit spreads and depress CDO and MBS issuance. This feedback mechanism can create imbalances in the U.S. economy that, if left unchecked, could lead to prolonged domestic economic implications for U.S. standing in the world economic order [. . .] The potential for prolonged economic difficulties that also interfere with home ownership in the United States raises significant public policy concerns. Already we are witnessing restructurings and layoffs at top financial institutions. More importantly, however, is the need to provide stable funding sources for economic growth. The biggest obstacle that we have identified is lack of transparency.” (Mason and Rosner 2007).

2007 In a Marketplace interview Amy Scott asked interviewees about the disturbing consequences of the interconnections between banks, hedge funds, high risk mortgages and pension funds. In June two major hedge funds managed by the investment bank Bear Stearns, who purchased securities that were essentially a “repackaging of all kinds of risky mortgages” to tap into the subprime mortgage market are now verging on collapse as the number of borrowers defaulting on these mortgages increases. Joseph Mason explained that “this isn’t just a Wall Street problem. Your 401k or pension fund may be invested in similar mortgage-related securities.” The investor-base is broad and it is difficult to know who is at risk. “Investment managers don’t have to report their holdings. And unlike stocks, these securities aren’t quoted on an open market.” Mason has been a firm proponent of more transparency in financial dealings (Scott 2007).

Webliography

Belew, Bill. 2007. “Corporate Bankruptcies climb for third month in a row.” Uploaded January 21, 2007. Accessed June 24, 2007.
Christie, Lee. 2005. “Real estate: When booms go bust: Home prices can and do go down. Here’s what declines have looked like in the past.” CNN/Money. September 19, 2005.

Editorial. 2007. “Family finances under pressure.” Victoria, British Columbia. Times Colonist. June 24. D2.

Fitch IBCA, 2006. Fitch Global Structured Finance 1991-2005 Default Study, Nov. 26, 2006.
Huntley, Helen. 2006. “Mortgage Meltdown.” Tampa, Florida: St. Petersburg Times. Uploaded October 2, 2006.
Jayson, Seth. 2007. “Housing Slumps. Who’s Surprised?“; The Motley Fool. Uploaded June 25, 2007. Accessed June 25, 2007.

Lawless, Bob. 2007. “Bankruptcy Filings Up 18% in February 2007.” Credit Slips: A Discussion on Credit and Bankruptcy. Uploaded March 6, 2007. Accessed June 24, 2007.

Mann, Bill. 2000. “An Investment Opinion: What a Real Bear Market Feels Like.” >> Fool on the Hill. Uploaded April 26, 2000.

Mason, Joseph R.; Rosner, Joshua. 2007. “Where Did the Risk Go? How Misapplied Bond Ratings Cause Mortgage Backed Securities and Collateralized Debt Obligation Market Disruptions.” Uploaded May 2007. Accessed June 24, 2007.

Miller, Geoffrey P. 2001. “The Role of a Central Bank in a Bubble Economy.” July 16, 2001.

Molony, Walter. 2007. “May Existing: Home Sales Show Market is Under Performing.” Washington. Uploaded June 25, 2007.

Perkins, Broderick. 2001. “California Real Estate Won’t Mirror Silicon Valley Volatility.” >> Realty Times. Uploaded May 18, 2001. Accessed June 24, 2007.

Scott, Amy. 2007. “Mortgage meltdown hits Bear Stearns.” >> New York: Marketplace. Uploaded June 20, 2007. Accessed June 24, 2007.

Winzer, Ingo. 2005. president of Local Market Monitor, which sells real-estate market analysis to corporate and consumer clients.

Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “Democratization of Debt: Wall Street’s Bear Stearn’s and Tampa’s Mortgage Meltdown.” >> Speechless. June 24, 2007.

Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2007. “Democratization of Debt: Bear Stearn & Mortgage Meltdown.” >> Google docs

http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=ddp3qxmz_320dqk9nt


The industrial-size cries of the young heron reminded me of scenes from Jurassic Park. Their loud squawking can be heard long before you can see them.  The activity in the nest is so aggressive and loud you would think an eagle was attacking. The huge nests balance on the tops of alder trees.  This active rookery of about 50 nests is situated at c. 48°44’21.80″N, 123°37’38.78″W.  On June 17, 2007 the young were visible with the naked eye. They are awkward and seem to be over-sized for their nests which sway as they fight over food that the adult heron bring.

As we chatted we could see a steady stream of herons flying back and forth between the food sources at low tide on the Cowichan Bay estuary and the rookery at the edge of the ravine that cuts deeply behind Pritchard Road. Dell Bumstead’s mature, magical garden is at the end of Pritchard just on the edge of the ravine. Dell remembers when one flock of seventy heron flew over her garden c. 1997.


This slideshow Logo Digitage Web2.0 was featured on SlideShare on June 18!

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